Full text. Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (K), or click on a page. Primary Care Diabetes Europe exists to provide a focal point for primary care Predicting risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korean adults aged 40–69 by. The journal publishes original research articles and high quality reviews in the fields of clinical care, diabetes education, nutrition, health.
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The journal publishes original research articles and high quality reviews in the fields of clinical care , diabetes education , nutrition , health services , psychosocial research and epidemiology and other areas as far as is relevant for diabetology in a primary-care setting.
The purpose of the journal The purpose of the journal is to encourage interdisciplinary research and discussion between all those who are involved in primary diabetes care on an international level.
The Journal also publishes news and articles concerning the policies and activities of Primary Care Diabetes Europe and reflects the society's aim of improving the care for people with diabetes mellitus within the primary-care setting.
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Track accepted paper Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. Order Journal Institutional subscription Personal subscription. CiteScore values are based on citation counts in a given year e. People with MODY often can control it without using insulin. Genetic mutations autosomal or mitochondrial can lead to defects in beta cell function. Abnormal insulin action may also have been genetically determined in some cases.
Any disease that causes extensive damage to the pancreas may lead to diabetes for example, chronic pancreatitis and cystic fibrosis.
Diseases associated with excessive secretion of insulin-antagonistic hormones can cause diabetes which is typically resolved once the hormone excess is removed. Many drugs impair insulin secretion and some toxins damage pancreatic beta cells. Other forms of diabetes mellitus include congenital diabetes, which is due to genetic defects of insulin secretion, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, steroid diabetes induced by high doses of glucocorticoids , and several forms of monogenic diabetes.
The following is a comprehensive list of other causes of diabetes: A study suggested that three types should be abandoned as too simplistic.
This is hoped to improve diabetes treatment by tailoring it more specifically to the subgroups. Insulin is the principal hormone that regulates the uptake of glucose from the blood into most cells of the body, especially liver, adipose tissue and muscle, except smooth muscle, in which insulin acts via the IGF Therefore, deficiency of insulin or the insensitivity of its receptors play a central role in all forms of diabetes mellitus.
The body obtains glucose from three main sources: Insulin can inhibit the breakdown of glycogen or the process of gluconeogenesis, it can stimulate the transport of glucose into fat and muscle cells, and it can stimulate the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen. Insulin is used by about two-thirds of the body's cells to absorb glucose from the blood for use as fuel, for conversion to other needed molecules, or for storage.
Lower glucose levels result in decreased insulin release from the beta cells and in the breakdown of glycogen to glucose. This process is mainly controlled by the hormone glucagon , which acts in the opposite manner to insulin.
If the amount of insulin available is insufficient, or if cells respond poorly to the effects of insulin insulin insensitivity or insulin resistance , or if the insulin itself is defective, then glucose will not be absorbed properly by the body cells that require it, and it will not be stored appropriately in the liver and muscles. The net effect is persistently high levels of blood glucose, poor protein synthesis , and other metabolic derangements, such as acidosis.
When the glucose concentration in the blood remains high over time, the kidneys will reach a threshold of reabsorption , and glucose will be excreted in the urine glycosuria.
Lost blood volume will be replaced osmotically from water held in body cells and other body compartments, causing dehydration and increased thirst polydipsia. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by recurrent or persistent high blood sugar, and is diagnosed by demonstrating any one of the following: A positive result, in the absence of unequivocal high blood sugar, should be confirmed by a repeat of any of the above methods on a different day.
It is preferable to measure a fasting glucose level because of the ease of measurement and the considerable time commitment of formal glucose tolerance testing, which takes two hours to complete and offers no prognostic advantage over the fasting test. Per the WHO, people with fasting glucose levels from 6. Of these two prediabetic states, the latter in particular is a major risk factor for progression to full-blown diabetes mellitus, as well as cardiovascular disease.
Glycated hemoglobin is better than fasting glucose for determining risks of cardiovascular disease and death from any cause. The relationship between type 2 diabetes and the main modifiable risk factors excess weight, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and tobacco use is similar in all regions of the world. There is growing evidence that the underlying determinants of diabetes are a reflection of the major forces driving social, economic and cultural change: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease , for which there is no known cure except in very specific situations.
Learning about the disease and actively participating in the treatment is important, since complications are far less common and less severe in people who have well-managed blood sugar levels.
These include smoking , elevated cholesterol levels, obesity , high blood pressure , and lack of regular exercise. Evidence for the efficacy of this remains equivocal, however.
People with diabetes can benefit from education about the disease and treatment, good nutrition to achieve a normal body weight, and exercise, with the goal of keeping both short-term and long-term blood glucose levels within acceptable bounds.
In addition, given the associated higher risks of cardiovascular disease, lifestyle modifications are recommended to control blood pressure. There is no single dietary pattern that is best for all people with diabetes.
For overweight people with type 2 diabetes, any diet that the person will adhere to and achieve weight loss on is effective. Medications used to treat diabetes do so by lowering blood sugar levels. There is broad consensus that when people with diabetes maintain tight glucose control also called "tight glycemic control" — keeping the glucose levels in their blood within normal ranges — that they experience fewer complications like kidney problems and eye problems.
There are a number of different classes of anti-diabetic medications. Some are available by mouth, such as metformin , while others are only available by injection such as GLP-1 agonists. These include agents that increase insulin release, agents that decrease absorption of sugar from the intestines, and agents that make the body more sensitive to insulin.
Weight loss surgery in those with obesity and type two diabetes is often an effective measure. In countries using a general practitioner system, such as the United Kingdom, care may take place mainly outside hospitals, with hospital-based specialist care used only in case of complications, difficult blood sugar control, or research projects. In other circumstances, general practitioners and specialists share care in a team approach.
Home telehealth support can be an effective management technique. As of [update] , million people have diabetes worldwide,  up from an estimated million people in  and from million in The WHO estimates that diabetes mellitus resulted in 1.
Diabetes mellitus occurs throughout the world but is more common especially type 2 in more developed countries. Diabetes was one of the first diseases described,  with an Egyptian manuscript from c. Galen named the disease "diarrhea of the urine" diarrhea urinosa. He described the symptoms and the course of the disease, which he attributed to the moisture and coldness, reflecting the beliefs of the " Pneumatic School ".
He hypothesized a correlation of diabetes with other diseases, and he discussed differential diagnosis from the snakebite which also provokes excessive thirst. His work remained unknown in the West until , when the first Latin edition was published in Venice. This sweet taste had been noticed in urine by the ancient Greeks, Chinese, Egyptians, Indians, and Persians. The " St. Vincent Declaration "   was the result of international efforts to improve the care accorded to those with diabetes.
Several countries established more and less successful national diabetes programmes to improve treatment of the disease. People with diabetes who have neuropathic symptoms such as numbness or tingling in feet or hands are twice as likely to be unemployed as those without the symptoms. In , diabetes-related emergency room ER visit rates in the United States were higher among people from the lowest income communities per 10, population than from the highest income communities per 10, population.
Beyond these two types, there is no agreed-upon standard nomenclature. Diabetes mellitus is also occasionally known as "sugar diabetes" to differentiate it from diabetes insipidus. In animals, diabetes is most commonly encountered in dogs and cats.
Middle-aged animals are most commonly affected. Female dogs are twice as likely to be affected as males, while according to some sources, male cats are also more prone than females. In both species, all breeds may be affected, but some small dog breeds are particularly likely to develop diabetes, such as Miniature Poodles. Feline diabetes mellitus is strikingly similar to human type 2 diabetes. The Burmese breed, along with the Russian Blue , Abyssinian , and Norwegian Forest cat breeds, showed an increased risk of DM, while several breeds showed a lower risk.
There is an association between overweight and an increased risk of feline diabetes. The symptoms may relate to fluid loss and polyuria, but the course may also be insidious. Diabetic animals are more prone to infections. The long-term complications recognized in humans are much rarer in animals. The principles of treatment weight loss, oral antidiabetics, subcutaneous insulin and management of emergencies e.
Inhalable insulin has been developed. Test subjects all had diabetes mellitus type 1 and were randomized to a tight glycemic arm and a control arm with the standard of care at the time; people were followed for an average of seven years, and people in the treatment had dramatically lower rates of diabetic complications. It was as a landmark study at the time, and significantly changed the management of all forms of diabetes.
Around 3, people with type 2 diabetes were followed for an average of ten years, and were treated with tight glucose control or the standard of care, and again the treatment arm had far better outcomes. This confirmed the importance of tight glucose control, as well as blood pressure control, for people with this condition.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Diabetes insipidus. Complications of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus type 1. Diabetes mellitus type 2. Glycated hemoglobin and Glucose tolerance test. Prevention of diabetes mellitus type 2. Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus. List of films featuring diabetes. Diabetes in dogs and Diabetes in cats. Archived from the original on 5 August Archived from the original on 26 August Retrieved 25 March Archived from the original on 2 February Retrieved 10 February Archived PDF from the original on Retrieved 12 October Archived from the original on 22 March Retrieved 21 March Archived from the original on 30 May Archived from the original on 31 March Retrieved 4 April Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers.
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Diabetes Mellitus and Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism: Current Diabetes Reports Review. So far, none of the hypotheses accounting for virus-induced beta cell autoimmunity has been supported by stringent evidence in humans, and the involvement of several mechanisms rather than just one is also plausible. Past, Present, and Future". Canadian Journal of Diabetes Review. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.
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Primary Care Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in . The primary complications of diabetes due to damage in small blood vessels include damage to the eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Damage to the. The common primary diabetes mellitus syndromes are: insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) (Type I Diabetes); non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Read the latest articles of Primary Care Diabetes at quickdiets.xyz, Elsevier's leading platform of peer-reviewed scholarly literature.