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Leave a Reply Cancel reply. Your email address will not be published. Remember me Lost your password? Melissa J on January 28, Joedan on December 27, Christine Nelson on October 24, Adam on October 25, Amanda on June 20, Hector on June 11, Beth on October 2, Adam on June 11, Suzanne Fairchild on June 10, Sonja Conn on May 9, Devona Anderson on March 15, Willey Bradley on March 8, Adding petroleum ether to the tincture will extract D9 THC, leaving water-soluble chemicals in the ethanol certain cannabinoids, proteins, chlorophyll, etc.
Butane is a more selective solvent which typically carries lower amounts of undesired solubles, resulting in a more pure THC. Alcohol is less selective than butane, carrying other types of plant matter such as chlorophylls and lipids, resulting in a less pure hash oil, freezing the plant matter prior to making hash from alcohol can prevent some chlorophyll from being carried. Carbon Dioxide CO2 has also been used to extract hash, but special laboratory equipment is needed since CO 2 only functions as a solvent under high pressure.
Brick weed is a curing and packaging method of cannabis cultivation that consists in drying the bud for a short period, if at all, and pressing it with a hydraulic press, compacting the whole plant bud, stems and seeds into a brick, hence the name brick weed. This method is mainly used in the top cannabis producing countries like Mexico and Paraguay where it is largely exported.
Brick weed has a low THC level and less potent aroma and taste. Outdoor growers are likely to confront issues regarding pests. In any case indoor or outdoor , experienced growers recommend caution when using chemical pesticides, for they may have toxic effects on the environment, the plants themselves and in turn cannabis consumers.
As a general rule, experts mandate the deployment of pesticides clearly marked as "safe to use on food crops. Substances used on cannabis but not proven to induce little or no harm include: Pests include slugs caterpillars and snails. Indoor growers also have problems with pests, usually caused by the grower or a pet bringing them in from the outdoors.
If caught too late, eradication of many destructive insect species indoors may be impossible until all infected plants are removed from the space and sterilization methods employed.
The modification of a plant's growth habit is called training. Indoor cultivators employ many training techniques to encourage shorter plants and denser canopy growth. Some cultivators employ plant training techniques to increase yields indoors:. Topping is the removal of the top of the apical meristem dominant central stem , called the apex or terminal bud, to transfer apical dominance the tendency for the apex to grow more rapidly than the rest of the plant to the shoots emanating from the two nodes immediately beneath the pruning cut.
This process can be repeated on one or both of the two new meristems, when they become apically dominant, with the same results. This process can actually be repeated nigh infinitely, but over-diffusion of apical dominance produces smaller, lower quality buds, so it is usually done no more than a few times. Topping also causes more rapid growth of all of the branches below the cut while the plant heals.
Pinching also called "FIMing" is similar to topping in that it causes lower branches to grow more rapidly, but the apical meristem maintain apical dominance, which is especially useful if the plant has already been topped. Pinching is performed by firmly pinching the apical meristem s so as to substantially damage vascular and structural cells but without totally breaking the stem. This causes lower limbs to grow more rapidly while the pinched tissue heals, after which time the stem resumes apical dominance.
This technique involves bending and tying the plants branches to manipulate the plant into a more preferred growth shape. This method of training works very well for indoor growers who need to illuminate their plants using overhead lights. Since light intensity greatly diminishes with increased distance Inverse-square law , LST'ing can be used to keep all growth tips meristems at the same distance from the light and can achieve optimal light exposure.
LST can be used in conjunction with topping, since topping increases axial growth side shoots. Topping is often done a few weeks before beginning LST'ing. The training works by changing the distribution of hormones—more specifically auxins —in the plant. LST'ing resembles the training of grape vines into their support lattices. Outdoor gardeners also employ training techniques to keep their plants from becoming too vertical.
In contrast to the "Screen of Green" method, Sea of Green or SOG growing depends on the high density of plants as high as 60 per square metre or 6 per square foot to create uniformity in the crop. In this technique, which is often grown in hydroponic media, only the colas of the plants are harvested. Containers are used to enforce the geometric distribution of flowers and plant material, as well as their exposure to lighting and atmosphere. Sea of green is popular with commercial cultivators, as it minimizes the amount of time a plant spends in vegetative stage, and allows very efficient light distribution, keeping the plants much closer to the lights than when grown to full size.
Medical growers may find this a helpful technique to maximize harvest if they are only allowed a certain number of plants. A screen such as chicken wire is hung over plants so that the tips of branches are kept at the same level. Once the flowering stage begins, the flower tips reach through the wire and are at relatively equal distances from the light source.
The plant should remain in the vegetative state until 70 to 80 percent of the net is full. As a branch reaches 7. Because of the amount of plant required to fill the net, the vegetative period may require longer than normal to be ready for flowering.
If the net is not full at harvest, valuable space has been wasted. If the net is too full then the buds will be too crowded to develop properly. Knowing how a plant grows can help to visualize when to flower for maximum effect. Hydroponic cultivation generally occurs in greenhouses or indoors, although there is no practical obstacle to growing outdoors. In general, it consists of a non-soil medium exposed to a nutrient and water flow.
There are many types of hydroponic systems. If the nutrient solution floods the loose growing medium and recedes for aeration, this is an ebb and flow or flood and drain system.
Systems that gradually drip solution onto the medium are drip systems. Systems that intermittently spray roots floating in air are called aeroponic systems.
If aerated water runs down a channel lined with a film of rooting medium, this is a nutrient film technique system. A series of tubes intermittently running high flow nutrient solution into the tops of growing containers use a top feed system. Aquaponics, another growing method that is gaining popularity, employs the use of fish water and recirculates that water from the fish holding tank to the growing bed. Hydroponic systems greatly increase aeration of plant roots, and increase control of nutrient uptake.
Hydroponic systems are decidedly more difficult to operate for the amateur or hobby grower, as over-fertilization is common, because there is no soil to act as a nutrient buffer. For this reason, many growers now use coconut fiber as a soil-less medium because of its high drainage and buffering capabilities that make it almost impossible to over-fertilize.
Additionally, if a hydroponic system fails, the crop has a high probability of dying as the roots rapidly dry out this is especially true of aeroponic systems. There is now a new breed of hydroponic configurations such as the Omega Garden, the B-Pod and the EcoSystem Vertical Growing System that use circular designs to maximize efficiency.
This consists of plants being placed or, in the case of the Omega Garden, revolving around a central light that makes maximum use of the light output. An important factor while cultivating photoperiod independent non-autoflowering cannabis is selecting the best genetics for one's crop. This is frequently done by selecting one or more known strains, or strains with preferred genetics, and then growing a number plants to find which exhibit the characteristics most desirable.
Autoflowering cannabis strains, also known as day-neutral cannabis are a relatively new development for the home cultivator. These autoflower strains are usually crosses that contain high percentages of well known photoperiod strains and Cannabis ruderalis with its autoflowering characteristics.
The plant produced from an autoflowering seeds will transition from a very short vegetative period, usually 2 to 3 weeks from germination, into flowering regardless of photoperiod.
The result is that no separate vegetative and flowering lighting environment are needed. Flowering is dependent on the plants age not the time of year or ratio of light to dark hours. The first autoflowering cannabis seed on the market was the Lowryder 1.
This was a hybrid between a cannabis ruderalis called William's Wonder and a Northern Lights 2. The genetics of the ruderalis was still highly present which made for a very low yield and little psychoactive effect. After many years of autoflower inbreeding seed makers have now come up with autoflowering strains that can produce yields close to the regular strains and still are flowering independent from the light cycle.
Instability of gender is a desirable trait in the wild, where reproduction is the most urgent goal. In cultivation, gender predictability is more helpful, because female plants that have not been pollinated are the most productive of the psychotropic material.
It is possible to use a combination of cloning and "shocking" of plants to get them to produce feminized seeds that reliably produce female offspring.
A clone retains the same sex throughout its life, so the clone of a female plant is also female. Environmental stresses sometimes create pollen bearing male flowers on female plants—known as hermaphroditism or 'hermying'. A method used by organic growers and promulgated by the cannabis breeder Soma, is called 'Rodelization', or letting un-pollinated female plants live several weeks longer than the normal harvest time. In such plants a hermaphroditic trait self-expresses in an effort to continue the genetic line.
Some vendors of feminized seeds assert that hermaphroditic "parents" do not create reliable feminized seeds, since the offspring may retain the tendency of hermaphrodytism.
Others believe that this method utilizing auto-hermaphroditic traits is offset by grower observations that the tendency to auto-switch sex is no greater in plants grown from seeds made this way, than occurs naturally. Colloidal silver commonly abbreviated CS suppresses ethylene production in bud sites, stimulating male characteristics. Most plants treated with CS will turn intersex within 2 weeks of triweekly treatment, producing viable pollen within 4.
Gibberellic acid has also been used for the same purpose, but it is harder to acquire than colloidal silver and can be difficult to dissolve into solution.
One method of obtaining colloidal silver utilizes a small direct current power supply and two pieces of solid silver jeweler's wire, or silver coin. Some cultivators claim that the genes responsible for hermaphroditism are present and may be expressed under stress from any of the above methods and that once expressed, this characteristic passes to seeds regardless of what activated it.
This view, in large part, is incorrect, as a random half of the genes present in each of the parental plants passes to the next generation, regardless of whether the genes that contribute to hermaphroditism were induced by stressors or not. This widely accepted Mendelian model of inheritance Mendelian inheritance does allow for genetic mutations that have occurred in the germline Germline of an organism to be passed on to any offspring, but this process applies to all DNA sequences, not just those contributing to hermaphroditism.
The inheritance of acquired characteristics Lamarckism that are not directly coded in the DNA sequence Epigenetics has recently received much attention in the area of genetic research and could possibly explain any anecdotal evidence for increased hermaphroditism in the offspring of plants induced to a hermaphroditic state.
However, a more likely explanation is that by propagating plants easily induced to hermaphroditism by environmental stressors, the frequency of genetic elements contributing to this trait is increased by artificial selection following traditional genetic models of inheritance.
Some theories suggest it is possible to selectively breed hermaphroditic cannabis to express the female flowering before the male flowering occurs, though this kind of selective breeding is beyond the capabilities of most cultivators. When crossing two strains of cannabis or two of any plant , the resultant hybrid may possess what is called hybrid vigor.
In general, this produces a plant that is healthier, stronger, or quicker growing than its predecessors. Sometimes, in the case of a plant that has been brought back from fruiting fruition, as mentioned above , it may be beneficial to cross it back with another close relative, in the hopes that it becomes invigorated.
Like most plants, cannabis has the potential for vegetative propagation , with the most common and simple method being cutting. Cutting is characterized as a cloning method, since the derived plants have identical DNA to the "mother plants".
Under appropriate environmental conditions, a cut part of the cannabis plant, typically from the main stem or a lateral branch, has the ability to produce roots and develop into a whole new plant the clone , genetically identical to the mother. In cannabis, the production of roots may take anywhere from 5 to 21 days. The oldest method of cannabis propagation is water cloning. Used for nearly as long as agriculture has been a part of human development, one simply sticks the cut end of clone cutting into a small body of water like a glass or bowl and waits.
Water cloning can take longer to show roots, but is a truly natural way to propagate any plant that is able. Marijuana growers often root clones in peat pellets compressed peat moss or in rock wool. Another technique that has become popular for rooting clones is aeroponic cloning.
Prior to the establishment of the first legal cannabis market in Colorado, United States, growers of the plant in the American State of Washington experimented with the use of cannabis waste for pig food.
In early , potent cannabis waste products were mixed into the feed of four pigs during the last four months of their lives, resulting in a weight increase of 20 pounds 9. Washington State's draft regulations prescribe that cannabis waste must be "rendered unusable prior to leaving a licensed producer or processor's facility," and adds that mixing it with food waste is acceptable.
The European Food Safety Authority reported in that "no studies concerning tolerance or effects of graded levels of THC in food-producing animals have been found in literature. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is written like a manual or guidebook. Please help rewrite this article from a descriptive, neutral point of view , and remove advice or instruction.
August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Drug culture Illegal drug trade Psychedelia. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. ElSohly 23 May Retrieved on 7 August American Journal of Botany. Retrieved 8 October The Cannabis Grow Bible: The Cannabis Grow Bible 4th ed.
If they can, there must be some chemical reactions going on. This would be really exciting because if we can identify and understand those reactions, we can leverage them. The current wisdom on cannabis curing seems to be borrowed from tobacco curing practices. Cannabis producers use the same terminology used in tobacco processing. But under the hood of tobacco curing, terminology is where the similarities with cannabis curing end. Being the most researched horticulture commodity in the world, there is plenty of tobacco curing research to dig through.
The Wikipedia entry on tobacco curing has a good summary: The oxidation of carotenoids produces color changes, which explains why tobacco curing is often called color curing.
If we are looking for signs of chemical reactions, the color change is a clear sign of them. In contrast, cannabis that comes out of cure the same color it went in suggests that compared to tobacco, cannabis is not undergoing significant chemical changes in the typical dry and cure process. Compared to four to eight weeks of tobacco drying and curing, sometimes followed by a fermenting process, we can guess that the chemistry of cannabis material dried in one week does not change much before moisture levels drop below where biological processes and many chemical reactions can continue.
Tobacco curing does not just change the color of the leaves, it changes the flavor and aroma as well. Curing also changes the amount of sugars in the leaves, which also affects flavor.
Add practices such as flue curing heat treatment and fermentation to the picture, and we can see that tobacco manufacturers employ a wide range of processes to produce leaf-chemistry changes. In comparison, the quick drying processes we use with cannabis have little chance of inducing chemical reactions. Flue-cured tobacco produces higher sugar content, while air and sun curing produce lower sugar content in the leaves. If sugar levels can affect smoking smoothness in tobacco, maybe controlling it in cannabis could provide similar effects.
We would also need to examine whether any of those treatments produces a clearly superior cannabis product. The drying step for cannabis removes the majority of moisture from plants, and the humidity and temperature of the drying environment controls how fast moisture migrates out of the plant material.
As opposed to cannabis, tobacco curing happens under the influence of heat, so here is something for someone to experiment with: For that matter, someone should also try cold curing. During the drying phase, water lost from the plant material carries with it aromatic compounds including ketones, alcohols, esters, terpenes and more. They are contained in the plant material, like tobacco. Chlorophyll is a great place to look for chemical reactions. Popular literature ascribes unpleasant tastes to chlorophyll in leaves, and many people talk about getting rid of chlorophyll as a key goal of dry and cure.
To find out, take some material and dark-cure it. Also cure some of the same material in sunlight, or under lights, until you get to the desired moisture level. Odds are that the light-cured material will not be the same color as the dark-cured material. Now for the taste test. If the light-cured material gets higher marks from testers than the dark-cured material, we have fairly conclusively shown that chlorophyll is an important variable in the aroma equation—and that maybe we should be adding lights into our drying spaces immediately.
If the tastes and aroma are largely the same for both green and not-green product, we will know chlorophyll is not the place to look for taste and aroma enhancements. Where does this leave us? In need of testing that enables cultivators to relate drying and curing techniques and schedules to aroma.
First, dry some flower quickly, and compare that to flower dried over a six-day period. This will quickly establish how important the dry period is and provide feedback for fine-tuning. We are very aware that the typical quick-dry times for cannabis are driven by a financial pressure that is never going to let up. A few simple tests seem reasonable to validate the current dry time and resulting quality, or indicate that minor changes in dry and cure have a potential worth that warrants further experimentation.
What about the claims of better potency and altered effects? With labs now readily available to growers, claims can be validated or bounced easily. So when looking to dial-in a cure room, lab results will tell us if product chemistry is significantly different before and after cure. Drying and curing processes are not insignificant to production costs, and that makes them a lever. Since you can move anything with a big enough lever, we need to find out if dry and cure offers us a little leverage on quality—or a lot.
Siobahn and Adram Darwish, owners of Blessed Coast Farms, are such experts, with second-generation experience growing cannabis. Siobhan, who has 15 years of cultivation experience, spoke with pride in being the first licensed farm in Humboldt County.
She was relaxed, but had an edge about her that let everyone know she meant business: Darwish Building and Consulting. That company helps other cannabis farmers in the Emerald Triangle get their businesses up to regulatory standards and assists them in the municipal licensing process. Here, Siobhan discusses details about their organic farm, the licensing process in Humboldt County and provides perspectives on the future of the Emerald Triangle.
Our farm is licensed for 10, square feet of mixed-lighting cultivation and associated processing. We have two additional farms that are in their last stages of permit approval. One, also mixed lighting, is under construction The last farm is off-grid and is natural-lighting only.
Blessed Coast Farms is full-sun and organically grown. The majority of the farm hands here are female, and we are proud to produce high-quality, clean medicine. We track water usage closely and utilize efficiency measures. When possible, we practice permaculture principles, and use local resources as often as we can. We believe that sustainability extends to setting a high standard for conduct, and we are working to educate the community that the emerging legal cannabis industry is contributing to society, not taking from it.
The licensing process here in Humboldt County is based on land usage. We had been watching the ordinance drafts and worked hard to be in the right place at the right time when the final draft finally passed.
Being licensed affects every single decision that we have to make as a business. We have to plan and document everything, and make sure that we are not stepping out of bounds for any of the regulations or agencies involved. We try to include as much data into our garden journals as possible so that we will have a record later for things that we may not have thought would be important. I have been living and growing in Humboldt County for 15 years and have since gained a great amount of knowledge on the topic of cultivating cannabis.
Once our farm … became permitted, we needed help. Who better to help than your family? I called my little sister, Sloan Reed, and invited her and her partner out here from Utah to work on our farm. Sloan had no prior knowledge of farming, the culture in Humboldt or the cannabis industry. Grow Sisters came to life once Sloan and I realized how unique our story was.
The opportunity to document our journey together was too golden to pass up. As Sloan learns how to farm, we will share our experiences with our viewers with the hope of helping to educate them in the world of growing cannabis.
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