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Also, the effect of carbonate materials on the formation of Tell Maresha is clearly evident in its matrix. It is interpreted that the architectural remnants that are embedded within the tell are the major parent material for the anthropo-calcretisation in this site. Based on current knowledge of calcrete formation, we assume that if the local environment maintains its calcretisation-prone conditions for at least the next 10 millennia, a well developed anthropo-calcrete will most likely form in Tell Maresha, as well as in the numerous tells in this range.
The study of the anthropogenic influence on the formation of pedogenic calcium carbonate can enable a better estimate of modern anthropo-calcretisation.
This will improve our understanding of the formation of calcrete in the Anthropocene. Beta fabric originated by biogenic activity, and is represented by rhizoliths root petrification, root mould, root cast , alveolar septal fabric, calcite needles, calcified filaments, spherical calcites, spherulite-like structures microcodium and vadose calcrete pisoliths.
Rhizoliths are organo-sedimentary structures produced by petrification of roots, and often show cellular cortex structures. The calcified filaments are straight to curved in shape, and some show small internal tubes, surrounded by an irregular coat of microcrystalline calcite.
The filaments are 1. Some calcite needles are associated with the calcified filaments where the calcite needles are randomly oriented and perpendicular to the filaments. Spherulite-like structures are observed in some thin-sections. Calcrete vadose pisoliths are composed of irregularly coated microbial laminae around a nucleus showing a downward elongation that indicates an in-situ formation. Their size varies from 0.
All these biogenic features indicate a pedogenic origin for calcretes in the regions and formation in vadose environment. They are white in color, and developed at the upper levels of the reddish-brown colored mudstones of the Pliocene sedimentary units. Calcrete profiles are immature in character and consist of isolated calcrete occurences within the mudstones. Palygorskite occurs abundantly as beige colored layer within the mudstone or minor component in calcretes.
The thickness of the calcrete profiles ranges from 1 to 5 m. The nodules are roughly spherical to elipsoidal shapes with diameters of 1—12 cm. Petrographic studies reveal that the calcrete is composed mainly of micrite, with microsparite and sparite locally present. Calcrete samples are composed mainly of calcite associated with minor palygorskite, quartz, feldspar, smectite, chlorite and locally illite and amphibole.
Based on micromorphological features, the palygorskite is presumed to have formed authigenically by direct precipitation in a lacustrine environment following precipitation of calcite in vadose zone and alteration of detrital smectite. The palygorskite associated with calcretes was precipitated from alkaline water rich in Si, Al, Fe and Mg having Mg-rich character: The study site is located west to the city of Marrakech and includes part of the El Haouz Plain and of the Jebilet range.
The plain is dominated by Quaternary sedimentary formations including layers cemented by carbonate and widespread calcareous crusts at the surface. The Jebilet hills are dominated by Paleozoic metamorphic formations, above which discontinuous and relict calcrete layers often outcrop on piedmonts, on valley bottoms, and on hill sides.
Calcrete samples were collected along an ideal transect including, from south to north, the Oued N'fis river bed and banks m a. The present climate of the study site is arid to semi-arid. The mineralogies of the calcrete samples collected from the study site in Morocco were examined using polarized microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and scanning-electron microscopy SEM-EDX methods. Based on micromorhological features, the palygorskite is presumed to have formed authigenically during and following precipitation of calcite from percolating soil-derived water in a near-surface setting.
As a result of anthropogenic influence the soil fertility can weaken and can be completely lost. And the soil fertility loss causes degradation of the cultural and animal world, ground and surface waters and also soil forming rocks. We should note that it is difficult to define the borders of the natural and anthropogenic degradation under real circumstances. Indeed, Faba bean Vicia faba L.
Rhizobium symbiosis with legumes is nowadays, an efficient strategy used to cope with the excessive use of chemical N fertilizers that induce depletion and soil pollution. This biological process is explained by the ability of rhizobia to induce nodules formation on Faba bean plants to achieve N2 fixation which improves soil fertility.
However, Both faba bean and Rhizobium are affected by different stresses such as: Therefore, the aim throughout this study was to investigate phenotypic diversity among the faba bean rhizobial isolates and to select the most performant strains that can fix N2 under environmental constraints for inoculation particularly in affected soils.
The resistance to extreme temperature,pH, water stress and antibiotics allowed us to range rhizobial isolates into different groups and compare them among smapling sites. Most rhizobial isolates showed a significant symbiotic effectiveness on faba bean plants under greenhouse conditions. These assessments may lead us to enhance the biological nitrogen fixation process on one hand, and to test the strains performance based on their phenotypic diversity, under environmental constraints various areas on the other hand.
Frequent problems accompanied with the vehicle operations on landscape are destruction of soil and plant cover, formation of tracks and entrapment of vehicles, causing damages to the nature and not allowing vehicles to perform their tasks.
However, if in the interest of the agriculture is not to destroy the soil and formation of tracks is not acceptable, than for military or rescue operations the tracks are acceptable as long it allows to perform their tasks.
That fore different criteria of soil bearing capacity should be used in different purposes. In years — the study of Estonian soils trafficability for non- agricultural vehicles was conducted. The different methods, such measurement of precompression stress, soil cohesion, angle of internal friction and vehicle cone index US Waterway Experiment Station WES model were run to find soils bearing capacity and formation of tracks.
The study was focused on natural areas except forest with limited traffic and thus previous compaction; however, samples were collected from different agricultural soils as well and tested at different water status.
For creating the maps, the 1: To distinguish land use and drainage conditions the basic map of Estonia and drainage maps were used. After taking into account land use, drainage, soil type, texture and water regime the bearing capacity was calculated for different vehicles.
The results of modelling were tested in field conditions. The results revealed good correlation between estimated and measured trafficability for tested vehicles. However, the boundaries in which we consider the soil trafficable or un-trafficable should be still clarified in more accuracy in the future.
The main cause of the increasing degradation of natural resources is their excessive use due to strong population growth, high livestock density and reduced access to land leading to contested land rights. Degradation of soil, vegetation cover and water accessibility leads to lower yields. Pasture land for herds is diminishing; some areas are no longer utilizable at all, and endogenous fodder plants decrease both in quantity and quality. Soil surface without vegetation cover reduces water infiltration and increases runoff.
This causes deep erosion gullies through which the water quickly drains off the land. Groundwater levels also drop, making less water available for all users. The interplay between droughts and floods is increasing leading to crop failure and loss of animals. This results in acute malnutrition in the Afar Region. In order to halt vegetation and soil degradation, German development cooperation implements a new approach to Ethiopia, building small-scale soil and water harvesting infrastructure successfully tested in the Sahel.
In degraded dry river valley areas, the effects of strong runoff of rain water and sporadic flash floods carrying eroded soil are reversed by constructing a system of water-spreading weirs. They are terracing flood plains while depositing fertile soil and increasing soil moisture. This intervention leads to the rehabilitation of valleys for food and fodder production and to provide access to water for people, livestock and environment.
At the same time, through the weirs groundwater levels are recharged and allow the local population to farm up to three cycles per year rainfed, dryland and irrigated. This soil and water harvesting approach is successful because specifically adapted to the parameters of a given landscape, climate and people.
Notwithstanding the impact on sustainability of agricultural production and sectoral development, there are significant concerns related to social welfare and well-being within rural communities. The adoption of soil and water conservation technology SWCT has, therefore, received much attention from both the research community and policy makers given that declining soil nutrient, erosion, and moisture stress have implications for agricultural productivity and thereby national food security and stability of rural communities.
Yet, despite notable success in the adoption of SWCT in Tunisia, broad uptake has been less than desired. Given a dearth of empirical evidence on potential causes for low adoption, it is both timely and imperative for research aimed at evaluating the impact of SWCT uptake by resource- poor Tunisian farmers; and to identify potential avenues for enhancing broad uptake.
The main objective of this study, therefore, is to identify and analyze those factors which have affected the adoption of SWCT in the Sidi Bouzid governorate of Central Tunisia, which we feel is representative of resource-poor environments within Tunisia.
Employing a binary logistic regression model, with data obtained through a survey of farmers, our results suggest that socio-economic and institutional factors have played an important role in the uptake of SWCT. Farmer experience and membership in a cooperative were found to have significantly positive effects on adoption.
Equally important was a finding that farmers with livestock holdings were less likely to adopt SWCT. This would suggest that linear processes of knowledge generation and dissemination, through training and extension, will need to be augmented with more dynamic engagement of inclusive innovation systems which necessarily include rural institutions.
Without well planned adaptation efforts climate change is predicted to affect the agricultural sector in Eastern Africa and to ultimately reduce agricultural yields and hamper efforts to achieve food security and reduce hunger. Sustainable watershed management can support improved land and water management and effective actions on climate change adaptation.
Various soil and water conservation SWC interventions across the Ethiopian farmlands have been extensively applied to prevent soil erosion and land degradation. Stone bunds are among the most widespread. Therefore, in the Gumara-Maksegnit watershed in Lake Tana Basin, field experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of on-site interventions graded stone bunds on surface runoff and sediment yield, and to generate indications to enhance their impact and for support upscaling.
Plot scale experiments were initially carried out in to compare the erosion processes taking place on treated and untreated slopes. Scale dependence of the results, and influence of the experimental layout were however observed. A second measurement campaign was performed in with modified experimental setting to investigate different scale effects considering stone bund cascade effects and cumulative runoff effects along the bunds.
Preliminary results upheld the relative conservation impact of the structures, but also confirmed that absolute soil loss rates remain high after treatment, calling attention to the need to improve and adapt SWC design.
OMW is characterized by high pollutant load, salinity and phytotoxic levels of polyphenols, but also by a high amount of organic compounds and plant mineral nutrients. OMW field spreading may represent a low cost contribution to crop fertilization and soil amendment.
This work has been carried out aiming to study the effect of olive oil mill wastewaters spreading on the chemical properties of soils in arid regions.
Amendments with OMW were applied on two different soils in arid regions from Southern Tunisia in a completely randomized experimental set. The main objective of this work is to identify the short—term effect of OMW on fertility of sandy soil, for the supply of soil on organic carbon, inorganic nitrogen, available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium during As well as assessment of its effect on pH, salinity of soils in arid regions. Obtained results show that under the conditions of our experiment, applying of this organic effluent has changed significantly the content of exchangeable potassium, mineral nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in soil.
Consequently OMW is considered as a rich organic material and may constitute a potential potassic amendment for dryland soils poor in this element, which has the tendency to increase the content of major elements and the soil organic stocks.
OMW application did not cause a significant change in soil pH as expected. This is due to the low quantity of OMW used in the soil. But it is crucial to highlight the value of OMW as an organic amendment that requires further study on optimizing used doses to avoid the risks that may cause. The derivative approach was used to create the sensitivity functions and then the non-dimensional relative sensitivity coefficients were calculated to assess the impact of the major climatic variables on Ep and ETo.
On the average of decades, solar radiation, air temperature, and wind-speed were projected to increase from In contrast, the relative humidity is expected to decrease from ETo and Ep are projected to increase by ETo was more sensitive to the net radiation in all seasons; followed by the air temperature in the summer months, and by the relative humidity in the winter months both under the present and future conditions. Ep responded better to the changes in climatic variables than ETo in terms of the sensitivity coefficients.
The sensitivity of Ep to the key climatic elements varied with seasons: The mean sensitivity coefficients for air temperature and wind-speed are projected to increase from 0. A slight change in the sensitivity coefficient for relative humidity is projected. The relative contribution of the net radiation to Ep would decrease in the future with a coefficient decreasing from 0. This outcome can be attributed to the proportionally higher increases in air temperature and wind- speed in the future, which would reduce the relative portion of the net radiation.
Greenhouse gases are one of the most critical variables on climate researches. In the global carbon budget, CO2 exchange between atmosphere and soil play an important role because the amount of carbon stored in the soil is approximately three times that of the atmosphere.
Soil CO2 flux is affected by agricultural management like crop rotation, fertilizing, cultivation, and meteorological factors. Reducing carbon emission from soil to atmosphere is an essential subject in global and national greenhouse gas budgets. Traditional methods do not allow continuous measurements. Therefore, CO2 emissions from soils are needed to measure in short time interval and continuously and also investigate relationships between meteorological variables.
In addition, relationships between some of meteorological variables and soil CO2 fluxes were analyzed. Petr Hedenec Co Convener: The present study consists on comparing between results of two methods to evaluate the situation of soils in Algeria. The first is teledetection remote sensing Albido, Map rainfall, NDVI and sensitivity map of desertification which, through satellite images, allows to observe the soils. The second is the analysis of acarologic fauna through the dispersion of species, their presence and their absence permet to give an image of soil situation.
The analysis of the acarologic fauna is realized in different places in Algeria, which are grouped according to bioclimatic floors. The results of the geographical distribution of mites collected during this study show a dispersion that is perfectly correlated with that of the vegetation.
Indeed it should be noted that the abundance of mites is very important for large values of NDVI and for low values of albido. The combination of the values of Albido with temperature shows that the mites are available in areas with water regulation, with availability of moisture and a good surface temperature Keywords: They often collect large amounts of organic material from the surrounding forest floor for building large above-ground mounds.
These mounds have higher temperature and lower water content than the surrounding forest floor which in turn may effect the soil fauna and decomposition processes. The aim of this study was to test the effect of wood ants Formica rufa group on the abundance of the soil microarthropods and litter decomposition. This, is the first study in Turkey, to understand the ecological role of wood ants on soil microarthropods and litter decomposition processes.
The study conducted on four selected ant nests of same sizes in a Pinus nigra stand at Cankiri Karatekin University Faculty of Forestry Research Forest.
Decomposition was determined by fiber litterbags, containing approximately 2g of air-dried Pinus nigra needles. A total of litterbags were placed near to and 10m away from the ant nests. Litterbag collection and soil microarthropods sampling were performed bimonthly from October to September During each sampling, three replicates of soil samples for microarthropods and litterbags were taken randomly from each plot.
The samples represent soil cores. Soil microarthropods was extracted using modified Berlese-Tullgren funnels and then sorted, identified and counted under stereoscopic microscope. This ongoing study, as well as previous studies, have revealed non-significant effects of wood ants on the abundance of soil microarthropod community and litter mass loss. Accordingly wood ants not key-stone predators on soil microarthropods in this temperate coniferous forest.
Objective of the Study: Our study was aimed on following questions: We used soil from mountain grassland ecosystem situated in Hongyuan County. Emission of methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were measured per week during three months incubation and samples for DNA isolation were taken each month. Results of our research indicated strong temporal effect of pH on microbial activity.
Emission of methane showed increasing along elevated pH gradient. Alpha-diversity of soil prokaryotes was strongly driven by pH among sampling times while beta diversity significantly altered only within increased incubation time.
Relative abundance of soil bacteria varied along elevated pH gradient among sampling times. Oligotrophs were strongly driven by pH during time while copiotrophs did not showed changes in relative abundances among sampling times. Soil bacterial community is sensitive to elevated pH gradient. Soil bacterial community is sensitive to changes of pH during incubation time as well as among sampling times, however, taxa with relative lower abundance seemed to be resistant to pH.
To fully understand of functional response of soil microbiota to environmental stress, main research effort should be focused to diversity and structure of functional genes.
Two slope aspects, north-east and south-west, taken on a small hill in the study area. Soil samples were taken from 5-m apart on a vertical and a horizontal transect on the aspects and number species per square meter was determined at each sampling site. The soil samples were analyzed for soil physical sand, silt, clay, bulk density, field capacity, wilting point, plant available water content, aggregation index and chemical pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter and CaCO3 contents properties.
Depth of topsoil was also measured at the sampling. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the soil variables and PD. The results showed that the PD was similar in mean and coefficient of variation on both aspects. Correlation analyses were conducted between soil properties and PD.
Compared to south slope, on northeast slope, greater clay content of the soils generated serious surface runoff that resulted in shallower soils. In addition, greater amounts of gypsum presented in soils decreased PD and this resulted in increased runoff on the northeast slope. Presence of high gypsum in soils on north slope would mask the correlations between soil properties and PD. Soil is one of the most diverse habitats on earth and contains the most diverse assemblages of living organisms.
One of the main reasons is that it contributes to the loss of valuable soil functions, such as biomass production, provision of raw materials and hosting the biodiversity pool. Therefore we started from the concept of ecological potentials and compared the potential use i. In this study, the impact of a number of land cover flows LCFs on the productivity of soils with a good, average and poor potential for biodiversity pool have been assessed and analyzed in EU scale.
However, regulation of these microbial processes is influenced by certain edaphic spatio-temporal heterogeneities created by different soil macrofauna.
Epigeal ant mounds, for example, are one of the main features of tropical ecosystems. It is hypothesized that ant mounds of humid tropical forests could be hotspots of N2O emissions. Principal objectives of study were to determine the extent to which ant mounds could contribute to local soil N2O emissions and to find out main microbial process involved in these emissions? N2O flux was determined in-vitro from live ant individuals, ant-processed mound soils and surrounding control soils for two trophically distinct ant species i.
Moreover, some physicochemical pH, total C and N, mineral N and moisture contents and microbiological nitrifier and denitrifier genes abundance parameters were also assessed. Mound soils of both species emitted 2-fold more N2O than that of control soils while this emission enhanced significantly to 5-fold in the presence of acetylene C2H2 , indicating that i denitrification was the major N2O-genic microbial process and that besides N2O, N2 was also emanated from these mound soils.
It is estimated that these ant mounds could contribute approximately from 0. Similarly, abundances of all targeted genes were higher in mound soils than control soils, although the difference was more significant for A. Nitrifier and denitrifier gene abundances were about 3. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological activity CO2 production, DHA based on the injection of liquid ammonia into the soil in comparison to conventionally applied fertilization in the widely spread wheat cultivation areas of Turkey Cukurova.
According to the results however there were no statistical significant differences between the applications in terms of CO2 production. On the other hand there were no significant results determined between the other applications.
Integrated Agricultural Information System Convener: Soil samples were collected with m interval at locations. Total of soil samples were collected per 20 cm until 1 m soil depth. Some soil analyses; such as soil pH, electrical conductivity, carbonate content were exerted to soil samples.
The descriptive statistics were computed according to soil analyses results, and spatial distribution of the soil properties were determined geostatistically using kriging method. Maps were generated using GIS software for each soil properties and depths with variogram parameters. Geographic Information System GIS had been done using the MapInfo software in order to make a map of the land suitability and a presentation of the results of land evaluations obtained by each land evaluation system studied.
Integrated Agricultural integrated system for policy makers. The basic system configuration is based on observation of the applicable framework for major soil and climatic conditions, which distinguishes the majority way of action on land productive function of soil. This framework allows to capture the main differences in the physical characteristics of the soil and crop yields. For setting up an integrated system, the paper evaluated the relations of production and the environment.
We used monitoring the soil and climatic conditions in the Czech Republic in - Based on the analysis of the effects of land and subsequent monitoring of the development of technology, price-cost relations in the Czech Republic in created the following requirements for the basic pillars of the integrated system Agriculture: Improve soil quality can be reflected in both the degradation processes and factors in the production capacity of the soil.
For this purpose should be a network of soil quality indicators that can differentiate changes in the soil. From environmental point of wiew, it is advisable for example acreage of intercrops or the extent of damage caused by erosion. In general, soils has distinct physical and chemical properties that allow it to be distinguished from the underlying parent material.
Moreover, parent material is one of the state factors and the influence of its on soil properties has long been recognized. Different parent material affect the morphology and chemistry of soils under the same condition, such as topography and vegetation, especially in arid and semiarid regions. The study soils were classified as Xeric Petrocalcid, Xeric Haplocalcid, and Xeric Haplocambid in pedological evaluation. The results showed that parent material affect soil physicochemical, mineralogical, and morphological properties in the local region.
That conclusion was also promoted by chemical weathering indices in the study. The solubility of gypsum controls its translocations in soils and its solubility is generally low in low precipitation areas. Therefore, gypsum in semi-arid landscapes affects soil physical and chemical conditions, plant growth, and crop production. Studies on the morphology and genesis of gypsiferous soils have been carried out by many researchers in recent years.
However, behavior of gypsum in soils is not fully understood. In gypsisols, many factors, including solubility of gypsum, time of contact between gypsum and soil water, dispersion and mineralogy of clays, ion exchange processes, and composition of soil solution affect hydrological properties.
In addition to parametric properties, morphological features of gypsiferous soils may have a considerable control on water flow in these soils. Therefore, new methods and advanced techniques may help understanding behavior of gypsum in semi-arid soils. In this study, we discussed different aspects of gypsisols, including their formation, hydropedology, management, and degradation in semi-arid landscapes. Calcite and layered minerals were principal components of fine fraction of the studied soils.
Illite was the dominant clay type in the clay fraction, and smectite amount was negligible. High infiltration rate, plant water availability, and good aeration of these soils were attributed to illitization processes, which is typical for soils with similar clay fraction in arid areas and to microaggregation of the soil solid phase by pedogenetic calcite that resulted in formation of calcite clay-salt ultra microaggregates.
Including micromorphology in the study of soil physics may improve the understanding and evaluation of soil physical quality in similar soil conditions. Soil hydraulic properties vary in Gypsic Haplustepts and changes in topography may further boost this variation.
The properties such as hydraulic conductivity Ks mainly control runoff in these soils, but little is known on the mechanism behind this control. The saturated hydraulic conductivity can vary both horizontally and vertically on a landscape. The aim of this study was to investigate the vertical and horizontal variation in Ks as affected by soil layering, slope steepness and aspect in Gypsic Haplustepts.
We measured Ks on a transect stretching a valley with a pair of north facing and south facing slopes, having topslope, shoulder, backslope, footslope, and toeslope a typical hillslope model.
Soil profiles were open and described at each slope position along the slopes 10 soil profiles. The Ks was measured with a Guelph permeameter at five points at every soil horizon in each slope position across the south facing and north facing slopes.
The data were analyzed by ANOVA test and the means were grouped by LSD technique to evaluate effect of slope position, slope aspect, and soil horizonation on Ks variability. The results showed that slope position, slope aspect, and soil horizonation affected the Ks significantly. We further evaluated data by dummy variables in regression. In hillslope hydropedology works in Gypsic Haplustepts, soil layering, slope steepness, and slope aspect should be included in the list of variables to be studied.
Firstly, we determined river network characteristics by GIS and RS and then we collected soil samples from transects characterized their vegetation and topography. Some soil physical properties were measured such as particle size distribution, saturated hydraulic conductivity Ksat and wet aggregate stability WAS.
In the end of the analyses, Ksat values changed between 0. According to the research results, particularly in agricultural areas, the width of the river bed tends to increase depending on the slope decreases. Accordingly, it was found found that there was more alluvial deposition on these areas. Farther from the edge of water, S content significantly decreased in all land uses. Our results pointed out that there is a configuration requirement for optimal land uses policy because we determined differences amongst riparian buffer zones in terms of measured physical soil properties in the study area.
In order to perform the chemical evaluation, soil samples were collected from each transects section. This case showed that successions process occurred in riparian buffer zones and the effects of the river bank proceed into the interior of the buffer zones.
The high pH values were determined in the river bank in agricultural areas. OM was low in the first zone, while it was the highest in the second zone. Also, OM had declining trend in the third zone. It has revealed the necessity to be managed of the riparian buffer zones with different soil and forest management policies out of the riparian buffer zones have different chemical soil properties.
Data are critically evaluated and incorporated in geochemical model Phreeqc using specific interaction theory, by modifying the sit. Gibbs free energies of formation of green rusts and natural green rust, fougerite, a mineral typical of gleysols are reevaluated. Reevaluated data are better correlated with the electronegativity of the compensating anion than previously.
A new value is proposed for fougerite. Most data depend on the Gibbs free energy of formation of ferrous hydroxide, which is poorly constrained. New experiments were conducted to assess it more precisely. The solubility product of ferrous hydroxide Fe OH 2,cr has been studied for 50 years by many authors. However, at basic pH from 8 to 14 , large discrepancies are found in the literature.
Experiments were thus conducted at high pH, and in a glove box to avoid contact of ferrous hydroxide with air. Ferrous hydroxide was precipitated and solutions were analyzed for pH and total soluble iron. There is no evidence for the existence of Fe OH at pH close to This study was conducted describe relations between soil morphological properties and saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks.
Undisturbed soil samples were collected from topsoil 60 samples, cm and subsoil 60 samples, cm of a paddy field and adjacent grassland Ustorthends and Ustifluvents with a core sampler. Disturbed soil samples were taken from the same sites and depths for basic soil analyses of soil texture, bulk density, soil reaction, specific surface area, cation exchange capacity, aggregate stability, field capacity, wilting point, linear expansion coefficient, organic matter content, and calcium carbonate content.
The Ks was measured on the undisturbed soil column with a constant-head permeameter. Following Ks-measurements the columns were left for drying for three days at room temperature and subssamples was taken for bulk density.
Penetration resistance was measured on the remaining undisturbed soil in the columns. Then, the soils were disturbed and morphological properties of soil color, structure, pores, roots, mottless, consistency, stickiness, and plasticity were described with standard soil description charts used in soil survey studies.
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Both materials are durable and washable. Birko Balance Footbeds are available in regular and narrow width. Product Details - Footbed: Based on the original Birkenstock footbed — featuring pronounced arch support, a deeper heel cup, high flanges, and a lower metatarsal pad; Sole material: Made of EVA — for a flexible, shock absorbing construction.
Birkenstock's famous Casual blue footbed provides long term comfort and arch support to your non-Birkenstock footwear. Contoured arches and deep heel cup can help relieve heel pain and plantar fasciitis symptoms. It features a hand-washable silk lining that absorbs moisture. Casual Blue Footbeds are available in narrow, medium and wide widths. Heeled Blue Footbeds, designed for heeled shoes, can be special ordered in only a few days. Contact us if interested. Based on the original Birkenstock footbed — featuring pronounced arch support and a deep heel cup, the casual footbed is for footwear with a flat or low heel; Sole material: Made of natural cork and EVA — for a flexible, shock absorbing construction.
Birkenstock's signature slip-on clog, the Boston Soft Footbed, speaks for itself. It's simple yet adjustable, casual yet durable—a perfect year-round clog. The Boston Soft Footbed clog has a deep heel cup to ensure proper weight distribution and foot alignment, a spacious toe box that gives your toes room to move, and asnatomically shaped cork footbed that molds and adapts to your foot's unique shape.
Soft Footbed providing extra cushion. Quality leather upper features adjustable instep buckle for a more personalized fit. Shock-absorbing cork footbed is suede lined to help wick away moisture. Raised toe bar is designed to encourage the natural gripping motion of your feet, exercise your legs and improve circulation. Footbed curves to ensure even weight distribution and proper arch support.
Neutral heel cup keeps the foot's natural padding directly under the heel, supporting the heel which is bearing the weight of the body Birkenstock creates shoes that follow your foot's shape and contours. The long awaited Birkenstock classic Boston clog, a legend in comfort and style, is now available in all Vegan materials! Folks, there are no animal products on any part of this shoe. Birkenstock's Vegan Boston mule features their classic cork footbed following your foot's shape and contours.
The support and durability offered by this brand still prevails, now available in all Vegan materials! The Vegan Boston clog has a deep heel cup to ensure proper weight distribution and foot alignment, a spacious toe box that gives your toes room to move, and a footbed that adapts to your foot's unique shape. All Vegan non-animal materials.
High quality non-leather microfiber upper and foot liner. Thanks to the seven-hole lacing section, this low shoe can also be individually adjusted to the wearer's feet. Removable, anatomically shaped, contoured cork-latex footbed. Large ; Color: Soft-stretch, elastic band top that gently conforms to your leg.
Enhanced toe and heel zones for long-lasting durability. Ultra-smooth toe seam for all-day comfort in sandals, clogs, and all other shoes. There's finally a sock that fits your feet and does them a world of good.
The skin-friendly, ultra soft and GOTS-certified organic cotton is sustainably sourced and offers natural comfort. The pressure-free, highly elasticated ribbed comfort bands offer firm grip without constricting. The flat, hand-looped toe section further boosts the outstanding comfort.
Anatomical plush padding to match the shape of the left- and right-hand soles. Pressure-free elasticated comfort ribbing for strong grip against the leg. Flat, hand-looped toe section for peerless comfort. Black Nubuck, Brown Nubuck; Width: Birkenstock brings the stylish mountaineer look to the city streets with their Hancock boot. Made in natural smooth leather with a vintage brushed leather Nubuck finish, the down-to-earth ankle-high Hancock boot exudes authentic Alpine flair.
With the Birkenstock Hancock, style-conscious men will be able to climb to the height of fashion this season. This boot goes with a variety of sports-casual outfits. Removable, anatomically shaped cork-latex footbed. Black Leather, Brown Leather; Width: The Birkenstock Harris boot is a handsome lace-up ankle boot with urban sensibility and classic style.
The Harris boasts the comfort of Birkenstock's anatomical contoured cork footbed. Leather Upper — smooth, high quality leather. Contoured cork footbed conforms to the shape of your foot and features pronounced arch support, a deep heel cup, and roomy toe box, lined with suede.
Lightweight EVA sole for cushioning and shock absorption. Black Oiled, Habana Oiled; Width: One of Birkenstock's first closed-toe shoes, the London is simple yet functional, with an adjustable buckle strap. The Birkenstock London features a cork footbed, following your foot's shape and contours. The London has a deep heel cup to ensure proper weight distribution and foot alignment, a spacious toe box so your toes can move, and a footbed that conforms to your specific foot's shape.
High quality oiled Leather upper. Soft Footbed — an extra layer of foam cushioning under the suede foot liner. This style is only available in Regular width. Enhanced extra cushioned sole to support the arch and heel of the foot. Birkenstock's Timmins High Boots. Men with style and a flair for sporty and elegant outfits will love and appreciate the Norwegian-style Birkenstock Timmins High. The ankle boot boasts an elegant look. In the ankle area, high-quality, smooth natural leather comes together with textile felt in a classic melange design and matching colors.
Habanna Oiled, Taupe Suede; Width: Although closed at the sides, this version is open at the toes and heel to ensure the feet get enough fresh air.
Thanks to two straps with stylish vintage-look metal buckles, the upper can be adjusted to feet of all shapes. The oilel leather Habana lends the sandal an ultra casual look. It possesses excellent shock-absorbent properties, ensures a cushioning gait that is easy on the joints, and supports the natural rolling motion of the feet. Anatomically shaped cork-latex footbed.
Suede or Oiled Leather; Lining: The Birkenstock Zurich turns 50 in and we're celebrating with a special trio of sandals—the original Zurich color sand suede, barn red suede, and light blue suede. All come complete with the original suede footbed liner color, gold tone buckles, and a collectors' issue Birkenstock seal of authenticity hang tag. The Zurich has been an esteemed style in the history of the Birkenstock brand, and is the second Birkenstock style to reach the year milestone, joining the iconic Madrid.
Women's footwear by Birkenstock. Browse Sandals, Boots and shoes made by Birkenstock. The Merge of Function and High-fashion. Few sandals are able to serve both fashion and functional purposes. Best in class construction- The bedrock of a quality shoe is one that promotes healthy, supported feet.
Created with optimal materials to provide overall support and cushioning—cork, jute, plush EVA and suede, among others—our footbed also isolates individual areas to ensure that different regions of the foot are properly served—the toes enjoy extra room for natural movement and foot alignment, and the heel is cradled and cushioned through its deep cup. The fashion factor- The design element can't be ignored when considering footwear for discerning women.
We play around with fabrics, finishes, height and other details to create a cohesive line of fun looks. The addition of shearling is a textural detail that subtly transforms our most popular models into something unexpected. The Amazon Shearling lines its footbed with puffs of fur, and the Daytona takes its criss-cross strap and adorns one side with the same lambskin for the coziest cool weather look.
These styles move easily between the transitional months where socks are optional. The Cora sandal exudes a super luxe look that fits in with flowy linen trousers at the Hamptons just as easily as it does with your most worn jeans in the comforts of home. The chic design of the single wide, patent strap allows for this versatility of style. It opts instead for slim, elasticized fabric straps that cling comfortably to the foot, step after step.
The newest wedge from Papillio features an adjustable ankle strap and two front straps for a comfortable and classic fit.
The upper is high quality pull up leather that's smooth and has a slight shine. The traditional cork footbed offers signature support. Anatomically shaped cork footbed. Footbed made in Germany. Birkenstock's Classic two-strap Arizona sandal is a legend in comfort and style.
The Birkenstock Arizona sandal's cork footbed follows your foot's shape and contours. The Arizona sandal has a deep heel cup to ensure proper weight distribution and foot alignment, a spacious toe box that gives your toes room to move, and a footbed that adapts to your foot's unique shape. Beautiful patent leather finish Birkoflor for Spring ! High quality non-leather birkoflor upper, Patent leather finish. These seemingly enchanted sandals are just the ticket for little pixies.
The Birkenstock Arizona Lux sandal is a genuine classic. It combines a great fit with timeless design. The upper on this Arizona Lux is made from high quality leather with a stylish patent Spotted Metallic finish. Anatomically formed cork and latex footbed. The Birkenstock Arizona Lux in Ombre Pearl shimmers and sparkles in a new pebble-textured silver color. The classic contoured footbed on the Arizona Lux sandal is wrapped in Orchid colored leather for premium color coordination without sacrificing luxurious comfort.
Contoured cork footbed lined in premium suede leather conforms to the shape of your foot and features pronounced arch support, a deep heel cup, and roomy toe box. Mink Suede, Mocha Suede; Width: The Birkenstock Arizona Shearling — at last, the signature classic Arizona lined in genuine, moisture-managing shearling.
The Arizona Shearling sandal features Birkenstock's traditional molded cork footbed, absorbing shock and supporting the foot simultaniously. A raised toe bar encourages a natural walking motion, while the deep heel cup keeps your foot placed directly above the footbed's natural padding. Dual-layer jute wicks away moisture and strengthens the bottom of the footbed, making it easy to replace the shock-absorbing EVA sole. Contoured cork footbed forms to specific shape of the foot.
Lined with genuine Australian sheep shearling, not treated or dyed. High quality soft suede leather upper. Copper White Sole; Width: Birkenstock's iconic two-strap Arizona Soft Footbed sandal, a legend in comfort and style, in metallic leather uppers! This Birkenstock Arizona Soft Footbed sandal features a soft leather upper in metallic colors, while still supporting the foot with a cork footbed which follows your foot's shape and contours.
High quality metallic soft Leather upper. Arizona Washed Metalllic Rose. The Arizona is a comfort legend and wardrobe staple. Offered here in a lush washed metallic leather. The finish has a unique vintage look that intesifies with wear.
By virtue of its laces, the Birkenstock Arran can be individually adjusted to fit every foot for immaculate comfort, further enhanced by the flexible rubber sole. The Birkenstock Arran shoe boasts a summery appearance and goes with a variety of outfits. Padding in the heel area and a suede section give the shoe a comfy fit.
No shoe cabinet is complete without the Arran, now available in lightweight canvas for Spring! Original Birkenstock contoured cork footbed forms to specific shape of the foot, lined with soft suede. Slip on and enjoy: Lightweight fabric meets a flexible rubber sole to create the ideal mix for a modern summer shoe. Supported by the footbed, the Birkenstock Barrie has padding at the edge of the shaft further boosts the comfort factor and makes this slip-on perfect for long days. As the name implies, this Arizona features oversized metal buckles and pins.
This eye catching update makes a classic stand out! A classic wedge from Papillio. This everyday basic wedge has two adjustable straps with asymmetric covergae to the outer edge. The upper is made with high quality smooth leather with a slightly shiny finish. The sealed cork footbed offers traditional Birkenstock comfort and support. Pull Up Leather; Lining: Wedge Heel, heel height 40mm; Sole: Based on the original Birkenstock footbed — featuring pronounced arch support, a deeper heel cup, high flanges, and a lower metatarsal pad.
Based on the original Birkenstock footbed — featuring pronounced arch support and a deep heel cup, the casual footbed is for footwear with a flat or low heel. Mink Shearling, Mocha Shearling; Width: The Birkenstock Boston Shearling — at last, the classic Boston clog lined in genuine, moisture-managing shearling.
The Boston Shearling clog boasts Birkenstock's traditional molded cork footbed, absorbing shock and supporting the foot simultaniously. Email us at info good-earth. Birkenstock has refined a low boot with classic equestrian strapping and they call it the Collins. Complete with the signature comfort and support of the Birkenstock footbed. Leather Upper — smooth, high quality leather with a durable patina finish. Removable contoured cork footbed conforms to the shape of your foot and features pronounced arch support, a deep heel cup, and roomy toe box, lined with suede.
Durable rubber sole for traction and support. Medium , Small ; Color: Birkenstock creates shoes that follow your foot's shape and contours and mold to your specific foot shape. As we've come to expect from Birkenstock, this wedge cork footbed offers a high arch and deep heel cup.
The weight-bearing part of the foot in this style is in the arch rather than the heel as in the classic and soft footbeds. More importantly, the weight-bearing part of the foot is NOT at the ball or toe box as it is in most heeled shoes. At last, an amazingly comfortable Birkenstock wedge footbed! Everything you need to pamper and protect your Birkenstock footwear. Made in the USA.
Cleaner Refresher- non aerosol spray cleans and refreshes footbed. Suede Nubuck Brush- cleans and refreshes suede and nubuck. Leather Protector- non aerosol water repellent spray protects suede and leather. Cork Sealant- seals and protects cork. As we've come to expect from Birkenstock, the Dorothy Birkenstock wedge sandal features a cork footbed with a high arch and deep heel cup. The weight-bearing part of the foot in this style is at the top of the arch, close to the heel of the foot as in the soft and classic footbed.
In most heeled shoes, the ball of the foot bears the body's weight, causing many problems in the body over extended wear.
At last, an amazingly comfortable Birkenstock wedge sandal you'll be able to wear all day! Available for Spring in this fantastic African Wax Raspberry print! Heeled sandal with weight bearing part of the foot still relatively at the heel. High quality non-Leather upper. As we've come to expect from Birkenstock, the Birkenstock's new Spring Ellen wedge sandal features a cork footbed with a high arch and deep heel cup.
At last, an amazingly comfortable Birkenstock wedge sandal, the Ellen, you'll be able to wear all day! Three buckles provide the perfect fit. As we've come to expect from Birkenstock, Birkenstock's Emmy wedge sandal features a cork footbed with a high arch and deep heel cup. The Emmy Birkenstock wedge sandal is an amazingly comfortable sandal you'll be able to wear all day!
Dress it up, or down. Natural leather —Natural leather can be recognized by its untreated surface. Made with soft-stretch Certified Organic Cotton.
Lurex is the registered trademark of The Lurex Company, Ltd. All socks are produced in Europe. Made with Organic Cotton. Birkenstock's classic Florida sandal is all about 3 dainty straps. The Birkenstock Florida sandal's cork footbed follows your foot's shape and contours.
The Florida sandal has a deep heel cup to ensure proper weight distribution and foot alignment, a spacious toe box so your toes can move, and a footbed that conforms to your specific foot's shape. High quality oiled leather upper. The Birkenstock Gilford High lace-up boot has a stylish worker look. This casual Derby-style model boasts a sophisticated material mix.
Oiled leather with a pull-up effect and matching wool felt on the sides of the shaft clash together to create an appealing combination. It's rugged thick rubber sole makes Birkenstock's Gilford High an excellent rustic-looking work boot! Removable, anatomically formed cork and latex footbed. The Birkenstock Gizeh Thong sandal is now available in a new version with stylish metal fringes that lend this classic model a modern look.
Birkenstock's contemporary thong sandal, the Gizeh, combines the classic Birkenstock contoured footbed support with a clean-lined simple style. The Birkenstock Gizeh thong sandal's cork footbed follows your foot's shape and contours. The Gizeh sandal has a deep heel cup to ensure proper weight distribution and foot alignment, a spacious toe box so your toes can move, and a footbed that conforms to your specific foot's shape. The long awaited Birkenstock classic Gizeh thong sandal, a legend in comfort and style, is now available in all Vegan materials!
Birkenstock's Vegan Gizeh thong sandal features their classic cork footbed following your foot's shape and contours. The support and durability offered by this brand is never compromised, now available in all Vegan materials! The Vegan Gizeh thong sandal has a deep heel cup to ensure proper weight distribution and foot alignment, a spacious toe box that gives your toes room to move, and a footbed that adapts to your foot's unique shape.
African Wax Rasp; Width: Birkenstock's contemporary thong sandal, the Gizeh, combines the classic Birkenstock contoured footbed support with a clean-lined simple style, available in this fantastic print for Spring ! The Birkenstock Gizeh thong sandal has a deep heel cup to ensure proper weight distribution and foot alignment, a spacious toe box so your toes can move, and a footbed that conforms to your specific foot's shape.
Dainty cut-outs give the classic Birkenstock Granada a feminine touch. The Birkenstock Granada sandal's cork footbed follows your foot's shape and contours. The Granada sandal has a deep heel cup to ensure proper weight distribution and foot alignment, a spacious toe box so your toes can move, and a footbed that conforms to your specific foot's shape.
Black Gray, White Gray. High-end, long-staple cotton blends for a perfect fit. Ultra-smooth toe seam for all-day comfort in sandals, clogs, and all shoes. The Birkenstock Islay women's shoe is no exception.
The construction, which has been thought out to the smallest detail makes it feel like you're standing in sand, helping your feet feel as comfortable as possible for hours on end. The laces cover most of the upper material in this style, which offers a great deal of flexibility for the perfect fit.
Support your health and wellbeing in this stylish fully-enclosed shoe. Natural leather upper, recognizable by its untreated surface. Insole is lined with soft suede leather, leather lining on the sides. Birkenstock offers their most popular styles in three unique footbed options. A In place of these ingredients we have opted to use, in our opinion, safer and more effectivealternatives. In addition our products do not contain any genetically modified ingredients and allraw materials are stringently tested to ensure that contaminants are not present.
With products made from safety-conscious ingredients, you can be confident that the formulas you are getting are mild and gentle, without the need for animal testing. Flawless Concealer Light Medium Please see www. Applied on the cheekbones the All Over Highlighter accentuates the cheeks leaving a beautiful luminous glow. Shiny Lip Gloss 2.
Contouring Eye Liner 6. Whatever your skin type — we have a product for you. If you simply wish to cleanse and moisturise or tackle specific skincare issues then we have the right product for you. Clarifier CleanserA mild exfoliator that leaves skin smooth and Gentle, effective cleansingluminous. Our cleansers feature a range of exotic ingre-and luminous. Conditions, tones, dients to gently capture dirt and wash away debris. Use morning and night.
Massage into face and neck. Use two to three times each week with water. Mas- ml Dry Skin Item Code: A unique, liquid formula perfectly crafted for powerful and thorough eye make-up removal. Use this duo-phase eye make-up remover prior to cleansing. TargetGot a problem area to address? Skin lotion to help nourish and protectresilient skin. Mist a moderate amount on clean face, protect, whilst leaving your hands, and other desired areas.
Gently rub skin soft and supple and with aApply Retention Essence to area of into skin. Minimises the appearance of darkcircles and puffiness. Potent, vitamin C-enriched formula to improve texture andA dual-action formula that firmness, smooth fine lines andminimises the appearance of wrinkles, and brighten the skindark circles and addresses tone for a radiant complexion.
Rub in thoroughly until absorbed. Factor 15 SPF, Liposome delivery systems plus vitamin and antioxidant rich formulas.
TrueTouch AM day creams provide essential moisture and protection. Enriched with anti-ageing fac-tors this sumptuous formula delivers moisture and reinvigor-ates dry-looking skin while you sleep for a radiant, touchablecomplexion. It reinvigorates tired-looking skin, withimportant botanical extracts that improve skin vitality while yousleep. It smoothes and softens the skin, whilst delivering theproper moisture control for a clean and supple complexion.
The TrueTouch Skincare range is available to purchase in the following markets: Hydrate and plump withAn in-home spa experience that helps reduce the Moisture Maskappearance of fine lines and wrinkles, and in-creases hydration of your skin. Moisture Masks have a cooling effect that relaxes unsettled skin. Leave on for minutes. Remove and discard after use. Pre-treat with 12 hydro-gel masks Item Code: Invigorate and renew withHelps to relax the areas of habitual facial expres-sion and provide site specific benefits.
Provides long term benefits for a life-long radiant complexion and locks in the pre-After cleansing, apply to deeply wrinkled areas of concern. Hydracial SkinDefenseDaily anti-ageing moisturising cream. A powerful peptide combination infuses your skinwith deep hydration and protection against harmful en-vironmental stresses. Suitablefor all skin types.
Apply a small amount onto clean skin and rub in until thoroughly absorbed. Helps to lift, tighten, and smooth sagging skin helping you look more slender, and diminishing the signs of stretch marks. The gentle moisturising formula is suitable for use on the entire body including facial areas and features a powerful combination of ingredients to help support the production and synthesis of collagen.
On clean skin, apply Firm Up by rubbing in with smooth circular motion. An advanced anti-cellulite cream to help improve the appearance of dimpled and orange peel skin helping it to remain smooth and supple. The gentle formula helps to re-contour and re-texturize thighs, hips, buttocks, and stomach. Twice daily, apply a desired amount to clean skin and massage in smooth circular motions until cream is completely absorbed.
If you demand a lot from your body during a workout, this product is for you. Use before, during and after exercise to keep muscles supple and support the recovery process. Apply generously and gently massage until absorbed and results are felt. Endau Harmonizing CreamCream with herbal extracts for balance and harmony. Endau Harmonizing Cream Topical formula is a unique blend ofphytoestrogens and other herbal extracts to help balance hormonelevels for women during their menopausal and reproductive years.
Apply a small amount to skin and rub in thoroughly until absorbed. A host of natural ingredients combine to condition and moisturise your hands and body. Suitable for all skin types. Gently massage into the skin. Purisorb contains natural herb-based ingredients that are known to benefit the skin, includingaloe and vitamin E. For adults, use on a daily basis to get a fresh and dry feel. For effective, long-lasting freshness. Gently cleanse your body with a delightful Subdue contains naturally deodorising herbs formula full of added herbal extracts to leave that keep you fresh throughout the day with- you totally revived.
Subdue is including sensitive. Perfect for families who prefer a bar, offering easy-to-use, convenient cleansing for every- one. Use bar on wet skin. BodyIndulge Bubble BathAromatic bubble bath. Relax in luxury and let the bubbles gently cleanse andsoften your skin. The aromatic extracts of hops, matricaand laurel help relax your tired muscles and joints andsoak away a stressful day. Add two or three capfuls to running water. With penetrating wetting agents for a close and smooth shave.
Packed with added skin-nurturingingredients Close is suitable for both men and women. Apply to wet skin and leave for 30 seconds before shaving. Make a fresh start with a variety of specially selected products for those of you new to the world of Neways. Suncare Sunbrero Protect your skin from harmful sun rays. Apply before sun exposure and reapply every two to three hours, especially after swimming. An intensely moisturising aftersun cream packed with natural ingredients.
Also makes a great body moisturiser. Apply liberally after sun exposure. Intensely moisturising lip balm with natural ingredients, vitamins and SPF Apply liberally as required. Apply to clean skin and gently rub in. Work into a lather as you would soap, and apply foam to hair and body. Rinse and towel dry. Dental Care Eliminator Mouthwash Gentle mouthwash. A safe but powerful non-alcohol odour eliminator for reliable, fresh-breath confidence.
The perfect partner for Radiance and UltraShine Radiance toothpastes. Rinse mouth with Eliminator and expel. Mild toothpaste for the entire family. UltraShine Radiance combines safe, effective A mild and minty formula designed to help ingredients with gentle cleaning power for minimise bacterial growth and tooth decay. Brushing with peppermint Contains no harsh abrasives. After brushing, rinse immedi- gly fresh. Contains no harsh abrasives. Apply using a dry toothbrush.
After brushing, rinse immedi- 72 g Item Code: Gel for hair styling. Containing only the safest cleaning agents Sculpting Gel puts styling power in your handsavailable, this is a great shampoo for all the without plugging hair follicles or irritating thefamily. Ideal for normal to dry hair it is especially scalp. This easy to apply styling gel offers yourecommended for bleached, permed or colour- long-lasting versatility; a playful, wet look or atreated hair.
Massage into wet hair, then rinse and repeat as needed.
Product Catalogue - Neways
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