CBD and THC have many of the same medical benefits. They can provide relief from several of the same conditions. However. Cannabidiol, or CBD, is a chemical compound in marijuana with a variety of Here are seven health benefits of CBD oil that are backed by. CBD for Health Concerns. The ancient doctors and healers across the globe who prescribed cannabis thousands of years ago did so because they witnessed its.
THC & Medical Benefits of CBD
In order to maintain brain health and prevent degenerative diseases, new cells need to be continuously created. A study showed that low doses of CBD- and THC-like cannabinoids encouraged the creation of new nerve cells in animal models, even in aging brains.
Cannabinoids are facilitative of the process of bone metabolism—the cycle in which old bone material is replaced by new at a rate of about 10 percent per year, crucial to maintaining strong, healthy bones over time. CBD in particular has been shown to block an enzyme that destroys bone-building compounds in the body, reducing the risk of age-related bone diseases like osteoporosis and osteoarthritis.
In both of those diseases, the body is no longer creating new bone and cartilage cells. CBD helps spur the process of new bone-cell formation, which is why it has been found to speed the healing of broken bones and, due to a stronger fracture callus, decrease the likelihood of re-fracturing the bone bones are 35—50 percent stronger than those of non-treated subjects. Protects and Heals the Skin The skin has the highest amount and concentration of CB2 receptors in the body.
When applied topically as an infused lotion, serum, oil, or salve, the antioxidant a more powerful antioxidant than vitamins E and C  in CBD oil has many benefits and can repair damage from free radicals like UV rays and environmental pollutants.
Cannabinoid receptors can be found in the skin and seem to be connected to the regulation of oil production in the sebaceous glands. In fact, historical documents show that cannabis preparations have been used for wound healing in both animals and people in a range of cultures spanning the globe and going back thousands of years.
The use of concentrated cannabis and CBD oils to benefit and treat skin cancer is gaining popularity with a number of well-documented cases of people curing both melanoma and carcinoma-type skin cancers with the topical application of CBD and THC products. Best known is the case of Rick Simpson, who cured his basal cell carcinoma with cannabis oil and now has a widely distributed line of products.
Cannabis applied topically is not psychoactive. Cannabinoids have been proven to have an anti-inflammatory effect in numerous studies. CBD engages with the endocannabinoid system in many organs throughout the body, helping to reduce inflammation systemically.
The therapeutic potential is impressively wide-ranging, as inflammation is involved in a broad spectrum of diseases. The oral use of cannabis and CBD for anxiety appears in a Vedic text dated around BCE, and it is one of the most common uses of the plant across various cultures. While THC can increase anxiety in some patients, it lowers it in others. However, CBD effects have been shown to consistently reduce anxiety when present in higher concentrations in the cannabis plant.
On its own, CBD has been shown in a number of animal and human studies to lessen anxiety. The stress-reducing effect appears to be related to activity in both the limbic and paralimbic brain areas. A research review assessed a number of international studies and concluded that CBD has been shown to reduce anxiety , and in particular social anxiety, in multiple studies and called for more clinical trials. It is suggested that patients work with a health care practitioner experienced in recommending cannabidiol or medicinal cannabis so that dosage and delivery methods can be developed and fine-tuned on an individual basis.
At the same time, educated and aware patients can be their own highly informed health consultants. For anxiety, CBD products with a ratio of High-CBD cannabinoids can be very effective in reducing chronic anxiety, treating temporary stress, and protecting the body from the physiological effects of both. Varieties high in linalool, a terpene shared with lavender, are known to be effective for relieving anxiety.
Always start with the micro dose to test sensitivity and go up as needed within the dosing range, before going to the next, until symptoms subside. The micro to standard dose is usually recommended to treat stress and anxiety with CBD. For relief of immediate symptoms, as in a panic or anxiety attack, vaporizing or smoking work well. The medication lasts one to three hours, whereas most ingested products, including CBD oil, take thirty to sixty minutes before taking effect and last six to eight hours.
Herbal vaporizers that use the whole plant are also an effective delivery method. Sublingual sprays or tinctures taken as liquid drops take effect quickly and last longer than inhaled products.
The Cannabis Health Index CHI is an evidence-based scoring system for cannabis in general, not just CBD oil effects and its effectiveness on various health issues based on currently available research data.
Using this rubric and based on eleven studies, cannabis rated in the possible-to-probable range of efficacy for treatment of anxiety.
Elixinol Organic High Potency CBD Capsules Elixinol offers a highly concentrated, high-potency, organic whole-hemp plant CBD oil , which is naturally extracted with carbon dioxide and free of all synthetics and chemicals. Whole-hemp plant extracts contain synergistic compounds that are believed to enhance the effectiveness and benefits of CBD. Clinical depression is a serious mood disorder characterized by persistent sadness and loss of interest, sometimes leading to decreased appetite and energy and suicidal thoughts.
Commonly used pharmaceuticals for depression often target serotonin, a chemical messenger that is believed to act as a mood stabilizer. The neural network of the endocannabinoid system works similarly to the way that serotonin, dopamine, and other systems do, and, according to some research, cannabinoids have an effect on serotonin levels. Whereas a low dose of THC increases serotonin, high doses cause a decrease that could worsen the condition.
CBD products with a ratio of Specifically, products made with Valentine X or Electra 4 are more energizing, helping relieve depression. When low energy is an issue, sativa or other stimulating strains can be helpful for improving energy and focus when THC can be tolerated. Varieties that are high in the terpene limonene are recommended for mood elevation. Always start with the micro dose to test sensitivity and go up as needed within the dosing range before going to the next, until symptoms subside.
The micro to standard dose is usually recommended to treat depression. Vaporized or smoked cannabis is recommended for relief of immediate symptoms, or a boost in dosage, and it can also be useful for sleep issues. The Cannabis Health Index CHI is an evidence-based scoring system for cannabis in general, not just CBD effects and its effectiveness on various health issues based on currently available research data.
Using this rubric and based on twenty-one studies, cannabis rated in the possible-to-probable range of efficacy for treatment of depression. Research in called for clinical trials to look into the effectiveness of cannabinoids for bipolar disorder manic depression.
It also works on the GABA-glutamate system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Its main role is restoring balance through inhibition when levels are too high and enhancement when they are too low. This is the most likely reason phytocannabinoids in general and CBD specifically are able to regulate depression and anxiety.
The scientific inquiry into cannabis over the past several decades has confirmed that it is an effective and safe analgesic for many kinds of pain. Of all the reasons that people use CBD today, pain is the most common. The same can be said of cannabis in general. In the United States, over seventy million people suffer from chronic pain, which is defined as experiencing over one hundred days per year of pain.
Physicians differentiate between neuropathic usually chronic and nociceptive pains usually time-limited , and cannabis works on most neuropathic and many nociceptive types of pain. A number of studies have demonstrated that the endocannabinoid system is both centrally and peripherally involved in the processing of pain signals. Cannabinoids can be used along with opioid medications, and a number of studies have demonstrated that they can reduce the amount of opioids needed, lessen the buildup of tolerance, and reduce the severity of withdrawal.
It is suggested that patients work with a health care practitioner experienced in recommending CBD oil or medicinal cannabis so that dosage and delivery methods can be developed and fine-tuned on an individual basis. Oral CBD products with a ratio of Most discussions of treating pain with CBD suggest that finding the right dosage is critical.
Always start with the micro dose to test sensitivity and go up as needed within the dosing range by body weight until symptoms subside. If CBD-dominant products alone are not enough to treat a particular case, products with a higher ratio of THC are sometimes recommended to better manage pain.
For day use, more stimulating, sativa varieties with higher concentrations of myrcene could be added to the formula. In general, for pain, and especially for evening and nighttime, indica strains are favored for their relaxing, sedative effect.
A person without experience with THC should use caution and titrate slowly up to higher doses. Research as well as patient feedback have indicated that, in general, a ratio of 4: THC is the most effective for both neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Each individual is different, however—for some, a 1: Chemotypes high in beta-caryophyllene, myrcene, and linalool provide additional pain relief and increase the effectiveness of other cannabinoids for analgesia.
For relief of immediate symptoms, as in a flare-up of pain, vaporizing or smoking work well. The medication effect is immediate and lasts one to three hours, whereas most ingested products take thirty to sixty minutes before taking effect faster on an empty stomach and last six to eight hours. Sublingual sprays or tinctures taken as liquid drops also take effect quickly and last longer than inhaled products.
When pain is localized, topical products can be applied. Topicals affect the cells near application and through several layers of tissue but do not cross the blood-brain barrier and are, therefore, not psychoactive. The skin has the highest amount and concentration of CB2 receptors in the body. Considering all of the studies together, which number over forty for various types of pain , CBD and cannabis are shown to have a rating of likely probable efficacy.
It is one of the best-substantiated medical uses of cannabinoids. Sativex, a cannabis plant—derived oromucosal spray containing equal proportions of THC and CBD, has been approved in a number of countries for use to treat specific types of pain.
CBD causes antipsychotic effects. Posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD is a term for severe psychological consequences of exposure to, or confrontation with, stressful, highly traumatic events. Cannabinoids are believed to help in such cases.
AMtreated animals showed decreased shock-induced reinstatement of fear. SRI blocked the effects of OL, suggesting that endogenous anandamide plays a facilitator role in extinction through a CB1 receptor mechanism of action.
However, upon repeated stress or acute severe stress, CB1 receptor deficiency causes persistent behavioral inhibition. Repeated bell stress seemed to cause a cumulative fear in CB1 receptor knockout mice. CB1 receptor gene polymorphism is known to modify transcription of the gene.
In patients with Parkinson's disease, the presence of two long alleles, with more than 16 repeated AAT trinucleotides in the CNR1 gene, was associated with a reduced prevalence of depression. CBD, and some derivatives, were found to cause a selective anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus-maze, within a limited range of doses. The effects of marijuana on human sleep patterns were noticed long ago. Asthma is a chronic disease of the respiratory system in which the airway occasionally constricts, becomes inflamed, and is lined with excessive amounts of mucus.
In animal experiments, after methacholine-induced or exercise-induced bronchospasm, marijuana caused a prompt improvement of the bronchospasm and associated hyperinflation. The daily use of THC was not associated with clinical tolerance. Maximal bronchodilatation was achieved more rapidly with salbutamol, but at 1 hour both drugs were equally effective.
No cardiovascular or mood disturbance was detected, and plasma total cannabinoids at 15 minutes were not detected by radioimmunoassay. The mode of action of THC differed from that of sympathomimetic drugs. In another study, THC induced sympathetic stimulation and parasympathetic inhibition of cardiovascular control pathways.
The peak heart rate rise after THC was attenuated by atropine and by propranolol, and nearly abolished by atropine-propranolol pretreatment. With repetitive dosing supine bradycardia and decreased blood pressure with tolerance to orthostatic hypotension were observed. A number of studies suggest that there is a correlative, but not necessarily causal, relationship between glaucoma and systemic hypertension.
Ocular hypertension OHT refers to any situation in which intraocular pressure is higher than normal, and is the most important risk factor for glaucoma. In contrast, noladin ether decreased IOP immediately after topical administration, and no initial IOP increase was observed. CB2 mRNA was undetectable. Ocular toxicity was seen after THC treatment, consisting of conjunctival erythema and chemosis as well as corneal opacification.
Although these changes also occurred with marijuana extract, their intensity was much reduced. In contrast, no ocular toxicity was apparent during administration of plant cannabinoids other than THC. The results indicate that THC may have value as a hypotonizing ocular drug.
The intensity and duration of the arterial and ocular pressure responses to THC were greater in hypertensives than in normotensive patients; the changes in ocular pressure paralleled the changes in blood pressure in glaucoma patients. The antiproliferative action of cannabinoids on cancer cells was first noticed in the s. Since then cannabinoids were found to act on various cancer cell lines, through various mechanisms.
Moreover, cannabinoid challenge decreased the efficiency of glioma stem-like cells to initiate glioma formation in vivo. Activation of these receptors decreased growth, proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis, and increased apoptosis, of melanomas in mice.
These effects were prevented by blockade of the CB2 cannabinoid receptor or by pharmacologic inhibition of ceramide synthesis de novo. THC inhibited tumor-cell proliferation in vitro, decreased tumor-cell Ki67 immunostaining and prolonged the survival time of two of the patients.
Many drugs used today can cause addiction and are misused and abused, for example opiates, cocaine, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, cholinergic agonists, ketamine, , dopaminergic agonists, amphetamines, and others. Nevertheless they are still an important part of our pharmacopeia. Marijuana was used for centuries as a medicinal plant, but during the last century, because of its abuse and addictive potential it was taken out of clinical practice.
Now, we believe that its constituents and related compounds should be brought back to clinical use. The endocannabinoid system is a very complex one and regulates numerous processes, in parallel with other wellknown systems, such as the adrenergic, cholinergic, and dopaminergic systems.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Dialogues Clin Neurosci v. Kogan , MSc Natalya M. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Cannabis sativa L. Abstract Las preparaciones de Cannabis sativa L. Addiction to canabis, and the influence of cannabis on addiction to other substances Marijuana may produce mild dependence in humans. Negative effects of cannabis other than addiction There are some negative effects of cannabis use other than addiction, most of them related to alterations of attentional and cognitive functions or other neuropsychological and behavioral effects. Therapeutic uses of cannabinoids Obesity, anorexia, emesis Cannabis has been known for centuries to increase appetite and food consumption.
Pain Cannabis has been used for millennia as a pain-relieving substance. Multiple sclerosis, neuroprotection, inflammation Inflammation, autoimmune response, demyelination, and axonal damage are thought to participate in the pathogenesis of MS.
Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette's syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy Parkinson's disease PD is a chronic, progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD , depression, anxiety, insomnia Cannabis use is common in patients with bipolar disorder, and anecdotal reports suggest that some patients use marijuana to alleviate symptoms of both mania and depression.
Asthma, cardiovascular disorders, glaucoma Asthma is a chronic disease of the respiratory system in which the airway occasionally constricts, becomes inflamed, and is lined with excessive amounts of mucus.
Cancer The antiproliferative action of cannabinoids on cancer cells was first noticed in the s. Conclusion Many drugs used today can cause addiction and are misused and abused, for example opiates, cocaine, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, cholinergic agonists, ketamine, , dopaminergic agonists, amphetamines, and others.
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What is the Difference Between THC and CBD?
In view of the very low toxicity and the generally benign side effects of this group of .. The CBD/THC buccal spray (Sativex) was found to be effective in treating. Cannabidiol (CBD) may have some health benefits, and it may also THC creates a mind-altering "high" when a person smokes it or uses it in. Both THC & CBD interact with cannabinoid receptors, but the types of effects brought about by these compounds What Are the Medical Benefits of CBD?.