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Anthropologists, scientists, philosophers, historians and most social scientists have been reexamining assumptions about what science is and how it works.
They have challenged the traditional distinction between hard sciences such as physics, chemistry, and biology and soft sciences psychology, sociology, and anthropology.
They think they have more in common than previously believed. Anthropologists aid in the effort to study and reconsider what science is all about through gathering information about diverse cultural views on the process of explanation gained during participant-observation-based fieldwork.
Ethnology is the comparative study of two or more cultures and often compares and contrasts various cultures. It utilizes the data taken from ethnographic research and applies it to a single, cross-cultural topic.
The Ethnology approach can be used to identify and attempt to explain cross-cultural variation in elements such as marriage, religion, subsistence practices, political organization, and parenting. Anthropologists who focus on one culture are often called ethnographers while those who focus on several cultures are often called ethnologists. The concept of race was produced long ago by the process of racialization in order to separate humans from different areas on the globe to justify enslaving and belittling certain groups.
Since its creation, there has been a slow but steady attempt to deconstruct it. Of course, there have been many speed bumps along the way. Deconstructing the social concept of race has been a major interest of Cultural Anthropology at least since Franz Boas's work on race and immigration in the early 's.
The concept of race is important in many different areas of the discipline including cross-cultural studies, the way we look at ourselves vs.
Race is not biological but it's supposed to be a way to classify biological differences by grouping people according to different characteristics that they have. There is no biological part of race, it is strictly a concept created by humans to try to better understand differences between other people. The history of the relationship between anthropology and the concept of race is long and interesting see Race in Science web resources for more information. Race has often been used in societies as a factor of ascribed status, the status given at birth and assigned rather than earned.
In many cases it has affected individual's access to wealth, power and certain resources in their society as the concept has generated issues such as discrimination, prejudice and unearned privilege. Technology is an important aspect of Cultural Anthropology. Anthropologists have studied the examples of material life established in different human civilizations.
Some examples of these universal differences are in the shelter, attire, tools and methods for acquiring food and producing material goods. Some anthropologists focus their main concern on studying technology in diverse societies or the progression of technology. Individuals concerned with material life also illustrate the primary environment for which technologies have been revolutionized.
In Anthropology, technology is often studied in relationship to the natural environment that it was developed in. Some anthropologists analyze the ways in which technologies and settings shape each other, and others analyze the way non-Western civilizations have reacted in regards to political and economic strife of colonialism and capitalist industrialized technology.
With globalization, all people increasingly consume material goods and technologies manufactured beyond their own culture. Anthropologists have proven that non-Western inhabitants do not mindlessly imitate Western customs for the use of technology; instead they utilize Western technologies in creative ways, which are often unforeseen and can be adaptive or maladaptive. A cargo cult could be considered an example of the creative use of new technology.
Technology in todays culture, has tons of effect on our daily and social lives. It affects us in a way that the methods that were used to interact with one another are not seen as frequent as they used to be before. It has become less physical than it was before where nowadays it can all be done online via multimedia and other methods of technology.
Constant communication through use of technology is changing the way people think of themselves and how they communicate. They can get attention, always be heard, and never have to be alone. With technology evolving day after day, we do not know what is to come in the future from flying cars to robots, all we know is that our future will never be the same.
A first look at communication theory. McGraw Hill Company, chap 10 pp. Herodotus could be considered one of the earliest anthropologists in Western tradition, and his work can be regarded as some of the earliest anthropological studies.
In his nine scrolls known as The Histories, written in the later period of his life BCE , Herodotus describes the conflict between the Greeks and the Persians, but he often digresses from his topic to describe what he had learned through interviews of the Scythians, who lived near the Black Sea.
He learned about and recounted information on how the Scythians lived, and he also learned about nomads who lived further north than the Scythians. Even though the information he recounts was translated many times before transcribed, artifacts similar to the ones he describes have been found in modern excavations in Russia and Kazakhstan. Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed in reaction to, 19th-century "ethnology", the comparative study of cultures; it presents analytical generalizations about human culture.
Frazer in England worked mostly with materials collected by others — usually missionaries, traders, explorers, or colonial officials — this earned them their current sobriquet of "arm-chair anthropologists".
Ethnologists had a special interest in why people living in different parts of the world often had similar beliefs and practices. In addressing this question, ethnologists in the 19th century divided into two schools of thought. Some, like Grafton Elliot Smith , argued that different groups must somehow have learned from one another, however indirectly; in other words, they argued that cultural traits spread from one place to another, or "diffused".
This way of thinking could be better understood in the context of the school playground; everyone wants to be like the "cool" kid-they see what he has and they want it. This idea can be expanded to an entire culture, people see another group of people doing something better than them, and so they learn the new, more effective way of living.
Other ethnologists argued that different groups had the capability of inventing similar beliefs and practices independently. Some of those who advocated "independent invention", like Morgan , additionally supposed that similarities meant that different groups had passed through the same stages of cultural evolution.
Morgan, in particular, acknowledged that certain forms of society and culture could not possibly have arisen before others.
For example, industrial farming could have been invented before simple farming, and metallurgy could have developed without previous non-smelting processes involving metals such as simple ground collection or mining. Morgan, like other 19th century social evolutionists, believed there was a more or less orderly progression from the primitive to the civilized. After witnessing such a broad development of human society, we now have the knowledge that cultures change at different rates due to environmental causes, economic resources and educational development.
Some 20th-century ethnologists, like Julian Steward , have instead argued that such similarities reflected similar adaptations to similar environments. By the midth century, the number of examples of people skipping stages, such as going from hunter-gatherers to post-industrial service occupations in one generation, were so numerous that 19th-century evolutionism was effectively disproved.
In the 20th century, most cultural and social anthropologists turned to the crafting of ethnographies. An ethnography is a case study of a culture made by a researcher immersing themself in said culture. Typically, the anthropologist actually lives among another society for a considerable period of time, simultaneously participating in and observing the social and cultural life of the group.
This way of studying a culture is a much more unbiased view of the culture, as opposed to the previous method of armchair anthropologists throughout history, these scholars are there interacting with the people. As a way of learning about a culture, these ethnographies are a great resource. However, any number of other ethnographic techniques have resulted in ethnographic writing or details being preserved, as cultural anthropologists also curate materials, spend long hours in libraries, churches and schools poring over records, investigate graveyards, and decipher ancient scripts.
A typical ethnography will also include information about physical geography, climate, and habitat. It is meant to be a holistic piece of writing about the people in question, and today often includes the longest possible timeline of past events that the ethnographer can obtain through primary and secondary research.
Boas's students drew on his conception of culture and cultural relativism to develop cultural anthropology in the United States. Simultaneously, Malinowski and A. Whereas cultural anthropology focused on symbols and values, social anthropology focused on social groups and institutions. Today socio-cultural anthropologists attend to all these elements. Although 19th-century ethnologists saw "diffusion" and "independent invention" as mutually exclusive and competing theories, most ethnographers quickly reached a consensus that both processes occur, and that both can plausibly account for cross-cultural similarities.
But these ethnographers pointed out the superficiality of many such similarities, and that even traits spread through diffusion often changed their meaning and functions as they moved from one society to another.
Accordingly, these anthropologists showed less interest in comparing cultures, generalizing about human nature, or discovering universal laws of cultural development, than in understanding particular cultures in those cultures' own terms.
Such ethnographers and their students promoted the idea of "cultural relativism", the view that one can only understand another person's beliefs and behaviors in the context of the culture in which he or she lived. In the early 20th century socio-cultural anthropology developed in different forms in Europe and in the United States.
European "social anthropologists" focused on observed social behaviors and on "social structure", that is, on relationships among social roles, e. American "cultural anthropologists" focused on the ways people expressed their view of themselves and their world, especially in symbolic forms such as art and myths.
These two approaches frequently converged kinship, for example, and leadership function both as symbolic systems and as social institutions , and generally complemented one another. Today almost all socio-cultural anthropologists refer to the work of both sets of predecessors and have an equal interest in what people do and in what people say. Today ethnography continues to dominate socio-cultural anthropology.
Nevertheless, many contemporary socio-cultural anthropologists have rejected earlier models of ethnography which they claim treated local cultures as "bounded" and "isolated".
These anthropologists continue to concern themselves with the distinct ways people in different locales experience and understand their lives, but they often argue that one cannot understand these particular ways of life solely from a local perspective; they instead combine a focus on the local with an effort to grasp larger political, economic, and cultural frameworks that impact local lived realities.
Looking at culture as embedded in macro-constructions of a global social order, multi-sited ethnography uses traditional methodology in various locations both spatially and temporally. Through this methodology, greater insight can be gained when examining the impact of world-systems on local and global communities.
Also, emerging in multi-sited ethnography are greater interdisciplinary approaches to fieldwork, bringing in methods from cultural studies, media studies, science and technology studies, and others. In multi-sited ethnography research tracks a subject across spatial and temporal boundaries.
For example, a multi-sited ethnography may follow a "thing," such as a particular commodity, as it transfers through the networks of global capitalism. Multi-sited ethnography may also follow ethnic groups in diaspora, stories or rumours that appear in multiple locations and in multiple time periods, metaphors that appear in multiple ethnographic locations, or the biographies of individual people or groups as they move through space and time.
It may also follow conflicts that transcend boundaries. Multi-sited ethnographies, such as Nancy Scheper-Hughes 's ethnography of the international black market for the trade of human organs. In this research she follows organs as they transfer through various legal and illegal networks of capitalism, as well as the rumours and urban legends that circulate in impoverished communities about child kidnapping and organ theft.
Sociocultural anthropologists have increasingly turned their investigative eye on to "Western" culture. Also, growing more popular are ethnographies of professional communities, such as laboratory researchers, Wall Street investors, law firms, or IT computer employees.
He graduated from Union College in Schenectady in and became an attorney by profession. Later, he studied the Iroquois people of western New York and gathered extensive data about the Iroquois Confederation. He is best known for his work on kinship and social structure, his theories of social evolution, and his ethnography of the Iroquois.
Kinship is the web of social relationships between individuals and groups that form an important part of the lives of most humans in most societies. Interested in what holds societies together, he proposed the concept that the earliest human domestic institution was the matrilineal clan, not the patriarchal family. From the book, one of the most important pioneering achievements of the first order is the study of kinship systems. What he found was that the Seneca designate their kin in a manner different from that of the Western culture.
Unlike Western culture, they merge collateral relatives, such as cousins, nieces, and aunts, into the direct line, like fathers, sisters, and daughters. He graduated from Grove House High School but, never received a university degree due to the death of his parents. Following their death, Tylor started having symptoms of tuberculosis. He decided to leave England and travel to Central America in search for a warmer climate.
This is where he first started his research on anthropology. He is considered one of the early proponents of cultural evolutionism in Anthropology. He had awards and achievements which were Elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in , Honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Laws from the University of Oxford in and Knighted for his contributions in His first book, aptly titled Anthropology , is considered fairly modern in its cultural concepts and theories.
In , Tylor joined the University Museum at Oxford and became a professor of Anthropology from to Most of Tylor's work involved the primitive culture and the minds of the people, particularly animism. Animism is a philosophical, religious or spiritual idea that souls or spirits exist not only in humans and animals but also in plants, rocks and natural phenomena.
His work has been the foundation of many universities' Anthropological major curriculum. Some of his later works include: It developed the theory of an evolutionary, progressive relationship from primitive to modern cultures.
It did this by defining "culture or civilization" as "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, moral, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society". This definition encouraged the idea that even primtives possessed capabilities ad habits that merited respect.
Primitive stereotypes were thus changed. He earned a Ph. He originated the notion of "culture" as learned behaviors as well. His emphasis on research first, followed by generalizations, emphasized the creation of grand theories which were only after tested through field work Link: Boas was truly the first person to develop an ethnography which is a descriptive account of anthropological studies. Boas became Professor Emeritus in , after serving over 40 years as Professor at Columbia University.
He died in Ruth Benedict was an American anthropologist whose work was greatly influenced by her mentor and teacher Franz Boas, the father of American anthropology. She graduated from Vassar College in and entered graduate studies at Columbia University in , studying under Franz Boas and receiving her PhD in Ruth Benedict expressed the idea that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny which holds that the growth or change of the individual is a reflection of the growth or change of the species.
She desired to show that each culture had its own moral imperatives that could be understood only if one studied that culture as a whole. Benedict conducted fieldwork in New Mexico with the Native American Pueblo people and used data from Franz Boas and other colleagues like Margaret Mead to supplement her research. Margaret Mead was the oldest of five sisters. Mead was born on December 16, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. After graduating from Barnard College, she received her Ph.
It was there where she met her greatest influences, the anthropologists Ruth Benedict and Franz Boas. She was married three times in her life, her first marriage with Luther Sheeleigh Cressman, an archaeologist. Her third and longest-lasting marriage — was to the British Anthropologist Gregory Bateson with whom she had a daughter, Mary Catherine Bateson, who would also become an anthropologist. It was here she was able to take a positivist method to her research.
Mead was also popular to mass media as a speaker and writer of her work. Each setting would match up to a separate experiment. This allowed anthropologists, such as Mead, to study human life by participant-observation instead of an artificial lab setting. Mead used this method when she studied four different societies in an attempt to discover the range and causes of gender role. It is still used today. Margaret Mead was known for introducing radical proposals and being an activist.
One of her most memorable stances on issues was her outspoken advocacy on birth control. From her findings, she was able to produce many ethnographic writings, such as Coming of Age in Samoa and Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies 3. Julian Steward was born on January 31, , in Washington D. He returned to Berkeley for graduate studies, earning his Ph. Steward went on to establish an anthropology department at the University of Michigan, where he taught until The department later gained notoriety from the appointment and guidance of Leslie White, with whose model of "universal" cultural evolution Steward disagreed.
Steward's career reached its apogee in when he took up the chair of the anthropology department at Columbia University - the center of anthropology in the United States.
Murphy, and influenced other scholars such as Marvin Harris. Many of these students participated in the Puerto Rico Project, yet another large-scale group research study that focused on modernization in Puerto Rico.
Steward left Columbia for the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where he continued to teach until his retirement in There he undertook yet another large-scale study, a comparative analysis of modernization in eleven, third-world societies.
The results of this research were published in three volumes entitled Contemporary Change in Traditional Societies. Steward died in Steward is most remembered for his method and theory of cultural ecology.
During the first three decades of the twentieth century, American anthropology was suspicious of generalizations and often unwilling to draw broader conclusions from the meticulously detailed monographs that anthropologists produced. Steward is notable for moving anthropology away from this more particularist approach and developing a more nomothetic, social-scientific direction.
His theory of "multilinear" cultural evolution examined the way in which societies adapted to their environment. Steward's interest in the evolution of society also led him to examine processes of modernization. He was one of the first anthropologists to examine the way in which national and local levels of society were related to one another. He questioned the possibility of creating a social theory which encompassed the entire evolution of humanity, yet also argued that anthropologists are not limited to the description of specific, existing cultures.
Steward believed it is possible to create theories analyzing typical, common culture, representative of specific eras or regions. In addition, he theorized there were decisive factors technology and economics and secondary factors political systems, ideologies, religions, etc that determine and influence the development of a given culture.
Later in life, he began to teach at the Universities of Toronto, Louisville, and Buffalo. He then became a professor at the University of Pennsylvania where he pursued his interest in nonverbal communication and kinesics.
Birdwhistell found most of his studies through observing people interactions in films. His observations concluded that people use eye movement, facial expressions, and their chest to convey information.
Birdwhistell was the founder of Kinesics, the study of the human environment as culturally patterned visual communication, he released two texts on Kinesics, Introduction to Kinesics , and the better known Kinesics in context. Birdwhistell was a mentor to renowned folklorist, ethnomusicologist Alan Lomax. More on Kinesics in the Communication and Language Chapter. Harris joined the U. After graduating, Harris became an assistant professor at Columbia University, his main focus of the study was ideological features of culture.
Later Harris did fieldwork in Mozambique in and started focusing more on behavioral aspects. Harris did most of his fieldwork in Brazil, Mozambique, India, and Ecuador. Harris was an American Anthropologist known for his writing and influence on cultural materialism. Harris had over 16 books published. Napoleon Chagnon was born in in Port Austin, Michigan.
He was a major player in developing to the evolutionary theory of cultural anthropology. He first documented the Yanomami tribe as savages who treated him very poorly.
As time progressed he gained greater insight of the workings of the tribe, and the nickname of Shaki, meaning "pesky bee". Through this research he was a pioneer in the fields of sociobiology and human behavioral ecology.
The Fierce People , Chagnon, N. Although much of his work was meant to document the growing of a culture, he has also been credited as a destroyer of the culture. All claims by Tierney have been refuted, but it is a fact that due to exposure to other outside cultures, the people of this tribe were exposed to diseases that their bodies could not fight. Chagnon was not only known for his ethnography but he was also well known for criticism and controversy about his work and opinions.
Paul Farmer is a well recognized medical anthropologist and doctor. While working towards his graduate degree at Harvard University, he began working to provide health care to the poor populations.
This initiated his lifelong focus on providing proper health treatment to poverty stricken populations around the world through nonprofit work and through an anthropological lens regarding the social change necessary to aid the countries.
At Harvard, Farmer specialized in infectious disease and currently focuses on those that disproportionately affect the poor, such as tuberculosis. In , Farmer helped put together a nonprofit called Partners in Health. To this day, the group treats 1, patients daily for free in the Haitian countryside as well as provides works to cure drug-resistant tuberculosis among prisoners in Siberia and in the slums of Lima and Peru. Farmer uses his anthropological knowledge and ethnographic analysis to create sustainable and practical health care services for those in need.
He works to offset the negative effects in those societies caused by social and structural violence. Farmer is well known for the concept of "pragmatic solidarity", the idea of working to meet the needs of the victims while advocating for positive social change. Farmer has been awarded several honors; including the Conrad N. Tracking the Entire World. Cultural interactions result in both progressive and aggressive interactions due to the evolution of those cultures being uninfluenced by one another.
What may be considered good etiquette in one culture may be considered an offensive gesture in another. As this occurs constantly, cultures push each other to change.
The biological variations between humans are summarized in the ideas of natural selection and evolution. Human variation is based on the principle that there is variation in traits that result for recombination of genes from sexual reproduction. These traits are variable and can be passed down generation to generation.
It also relies on differential reproduction, the idea that the environment can't support unlimited population growth because not all individuals get to reproduce to their full potential. An example of human variation can be found with a cline. A cline is a genetic variation between populations of species that are isolated in their reproduction such as skin color variation in humans.
Human skin color variation is a selective adaptation that relates to the populations' proximity to the equator. Because of pigmentation characteristics within the human population, a system and term emerged to categorize the differing variations. This category is recognized as race. Populations of humans in equatorial regions have selective advantages as a result of their darker skin pigmentation, whereas populations in more northern environments have less selective pressure to evolve darker pigmentation and have lighter skin.
Other clines include differences in stature and hair type. Ethnography is a core modern research method used in Anthropology as well as in other modern social sciences. Ethnography is the case study of one culture, subculture, or micro-culture made a the researcher immersing themself in said culture.
Before ethnography, immersive research, the prevailing method was unilineal. This led to colonizers feeling able to set the rules for what is a "modern" or "primitive" culture and used these self-made justifications in order to rule over new colonies in the name of advancement for their people.
This view came into question with Anthropologists like Franz Boas, offering the multilinear model for cultural evolution we have today. This model closer, reflects the realities of different cultures across the world advancing in separate ways and highlights the impossibility to call one culture "primitive" in relation to another.
These cultures do not evolve from one another but evolved separately from each other into other cultures. A large part of the issue with early Anthropology was a reliance on second-party information while lacking any first-hand research of cultures.
Armchair Anthropologists usually refers to late 19th century and early 20th century scholars coming to conclusions without going through the usual anthropology motions—fieldwork or lab work. They would then create wild theories based on these accounts.
This led to a high degree of bias against these cultures, more so than firsthand research, and were not scientific in the way Anthropology is today. These biases turned into stereotypes which are still prevalent today.
This form of research drove much of the colonial primitive culture narrative and necessitated the adaptation of Ethnography. Ethnography, or the immersive method of case study research, has to lead to the dispelling of rumor and a much deeper understanding of cultures through great effort.
To begin, he clearly states his bias, being a male researcher and dealing primarily with the males of that society due to a highly gendered culture found there.
He explains with great care that he is not searching for what men "do" but what they "say and do to be men. He had limitations both being an outsider and being male, only being able to see how one-half of these people portrayed their culture and even then through the lens of an outsider with his own biases, stated as clearly as possible within the paper.
This is the value of Ethnography, it allows researchers to further understand their research while remaining as unbiased as possible, highlighting weaknesses and need for further research from people of different genders and backgrounds.
An Ethnographic Analogy is a method for inferring the use or meaning of an ancient site or artifact based on observations and accounts of its use by living people. We can infer the use of an ancient tool by seeing how similar-looking tools are used in existing or recent societies. By analogy we can hypothesize the same use for the old tool. In anthropology there are several types of fieldwork methods that are used while conducting research.
Below we will go more into depth with several fieldwork methods that are used. The observational method is viewed as the least invasive method where the anthropologist minimally integrates themselves into the society they are studying and gathers data through verbal communication while attempting to remain non-intrusive of the culture.
This group of methods focuses on community interaction through language. It usually entails many open ended interviews with participants who are members of a group being studied. The researcher strives to learn as much as they can about the history of the community as well as the individuals within it in order to gain a full understanding of how their culture functions. Interviews can take place individually or with focus groups within the community based on age, status, gender, and other factors that contribute to differences within the community.
This type of research often strives to create an open dialogue, called a dialectic, in which information flows back and forth between researcher and subject.
Think of this situation as a conversation between two people about homework or an upcoming exam. This dialectic poses a challenge to the objectivity of socially produced data. The challenge is dealt with through reflection on the inter-subjective creation of meaning.
This leads anthropologists to value reflexive abilities in their ethnographic writing. Because many anthropologists also hope to help the communities they work with to make change on their own terms within the confines of their own culture, in some cases objectivity is abandoned in favor of community based activism and social change.
Participant observation is a method for anthropological Fieldwork, used to collect data such that the anthropologist must create an intimate relationship between themselves and the culture studied. This method requires that an anthropologist participate in a social event that is part of a specific culture. This includes, but is not limited to, observing members of a culture by taking notes, eating the food that is provided, and participating in festivities.
The goal of participant observation is to be involved in the culture like a member of that society, all while observing and studying the culture.
An example of participation observation would be if an anthropologist went to a Native American Tribal gathering and took notes on the energy and traditions they were being shown. This anthropologist could participate in things like face painting or songs, and eat the food that the Natives eat.
The information gathered in this observation is then recorded and reflected upon to gain further insight into the culture being studied. This observation method helps the anthropologist develop a deeper rapport with the people of the culture and can help others understand their culture further. This experience may result in the individuals opening up more to the anthropologist which allows them to understand more than an etic point of view of the culture.
In contrast to participant observation, non-participant observation is the anthropological method of collecting data by entering within a community but with limited interaction with the people within the culture. This anthropologist can be thought of as a fly on the wall. An etic approach that researchers often use to examine the details of how the subjects interact with one another and the environment around them.
Detailed research such as body behavior e. An example of data collected through non-participant research would be the an estimation of how often women in a household wear high heels due to how worn out the carpet is.
The non-participant observation, although effective in providing some research, has limitations. One being, the observer affect. This is caused by the presence of the researcher having an influence over the participants' actions. The researcher may use systematic approaches of field notes, sampling and data to ensure and increase comfortable interactions. While using the non-participant observation method, the researcher's opinions may oppose that of the participant's on a certain issue. The only solution to this problem and to have a fuller and unbiased take on the research is to use both non-participant and participant method.
Cultural data assumes the form of directly observable material items, individual behaviors, performances, ideas and arrangements that exist only in people's heads. From the perspective of the culture concept, anthropologists must first treat all these elements as symbols within a coherent system and must record observations with attention to the cultural context and the meanings assigned by the culture's practitioners.
These demands are met through two major research techniques: After the initial orientation or entry period, which may take 3 months or longer, the researcher follows a more systematic program of formal interviews involving questions related to research hypotheses and specialized topics.
Several different methods of selecting informants are possible. Usually, a few key informants are selected for in-depth sessions, since the investigation of cultural patterns usually calls for lengthy and repeated open-ended interviews.
Selection of such a small number does not allow for strict assurance of a representative sample, so the anthropologist must be careful to choose subjects who are well informed and reliable.
Ethnographic researchers will also train informants to systematically report cultural data and recognize significant cultural elements and interconnections as the interview sequences unfold. Key informant selection is known as judgment sampling and is particularly important for the kind of qualitative research that characterizes ethnography. Anthropologists will very frequently also need to carry out quantitative research from which statistically validated inferences can be drawn.
Accordingly, they must construct an either larger random sample or a total population census for more narrowly focused interviewing according to a closed questionnaire design. Other important quantitative data might include direct measurement of such items as farm size, crop yield, daily caloric intake, or even blood pressure, depending on the anthropologist's research focus. Aside from written observation and records, researchers will often provide ethnographic representations in other forms, such as collected artifacts, photographs, tape recordings, films, and videos.
Since the beginning of anthropological studies, the Comparative Method has been a way to allow a systematic comparison of information and data from multiple sources.
It is a common approach for testing multiple hypotheses on subjects including co-evolution of cultures, the adaptation of cultural practices to the environment, and kinship terms in local languages from around the world. The comparative method, may seem like an outdated form of fieldwork information gathering, however this method is still quite prevalent in modern day anthropological research.
The use of this form of information gathering is intended to compare globalization, which uses a version of this method called multi-sited Ethnography by participant observation gathered from many different social settings. Another form of the comparative research method is shown through the Human Relations Area Files , which collects and organizes ethnographic texts from hundreds of societies all over the world.
These files cover topics ranging from types of kinship systems, to trading practices found in all of human culture. Anthropologists Ruth Mace--an anthropologist who specializes in evolutionary ecology--and Mark Pagel explore the comparative method of anthropological research in their article The Comparative Method in Anthropology.
They explain how in the past decade there have been many expansions in other branches of anthropology, including cultural diversity as a scientific endeavor.
This is when the comparative method is used by those interested in cultural evolution and by those who study other human sciences. However, "cultures cannot be treated as independent for purposes of investigating cross culture trends," therefore they must instead be studied in relation to one another: How two or more cultures grow together, or how they are researched together has the ability to outline the entire premise of the comparative method. Having been used for hundreds of years, this method is still one of the main forms of research for anthropologists all over the world.
Reflexivity is the awareness of the researcher of the effect they may be having on the research. It involves a constant awareness and assessment of the researcher's own contribution to and influence on the researcher's subjects and their findings. This principle was perhaps first thought of by William Thomas, as the "Thomas Theorem". Fieldwork in cultural anthropology is a reflexive experience.
Anthropologists must constantly be aware that the information they are gathering may be skewed by their ethical opinions, or political standings. Even an anthropologists' presence in that culture can affect the results they receive. Reflexive fieldwork must retain a respect for detailed, accurate information gathering while also paying precise attention to the ethical and political context of research, the background of the researchers, and the full cooperation of informants.
In our everyday lives reflexivity is used to better understand ourselves by comparing our culture to others. For example, when someone talks about their religion, you may immediately disagree with specific aspects of their religion because you have not grown up believing it as they have.
By being reflexive, one would be able to recognize their bias. Some anthropologists have taken this method to the extreme, Margaret Wilson, for example, wrote her book 'Dance Lest We all Fall Down' in a reflexive biographical manner; this accounted for her inability to fully integrate into Brazilian society.
Intersubjectivity is the realization that knowledge about other people emerges out of people's relationships with and perceptions of each other. The concept was first introduced by the principal founder of phenomenology, Edmund Husserl, and creates a "theoretical frame for thinking about the ways in which humans interpret, organize, and reproduce particular forms of social life and social cognition". Intersubjectivity is defined by five key principles. Instead of a one-way transaction, intersubjectivity should be seen more as a type of mutual understanding.
The second claim of Husserl's dissertation is that intersubjectivity is founded on the principle that we all share the same world, so that if two individuals were to "trade places", it would be present itself in the same way.
Through empathetic insight, human beings achieve Platzwechsel , which is a term used in chess to mean "place exchange". The third claim is that intersubjectivity creates a synthesis of worldviews through the usage of empathy.
Although there may be different perspectives in the relationship presented, the collective world is assumed to be the same through the bilateral insight of shared knowledge. In other words, intersubjectivity is not the result of communication, instead it is the condition required for it to occur. Finally, the fifth claim is that intersubjectivity is the principle by which anthropologists must view their work.
In order to properly create an account of a group of people, one must develop relationships with others and deduce perceptions through experience. Because of the intrinsic qualities of this type of research ideally being conducted by people with close ties or membership of a community , it is usually very applicable to situations in the community.
The research is an analysis of the community's behavior by the community's members. Not only are they by necessity, motivated to work on the problem, but they will already have significant rapport with other community members which allows them to better address and analyze it. The dynamic attributes of the process allow constant reevaluation and change.
This cyclic or regularly repeated tendencies can develop into healthy adaptation patterns in the community without outside contributions or aid. The triangulation method is the "combination of methodologies in the study of the same phenomenon". It is usually the preferred way to research because it can combine all methods of researching to get the best results. It uses qualitative and quantitative practices together. The qualitative practice gives the triangulation method its inquiry results.
The quantitative practice gives it the validation results. It combines a scientific approach with an observational approach. According to the Administrative Science Quarterly, it is a "vehicle for cross-validation when two or more distinct methods are found to be congruent and yield comparable data".
Relying on one form of research can create a bias. The general problem with measurement data, is the individual or group being researched tends to tell you what you want to hear instead of the full truth.
Triangulation helps prevent bias by giving the researcher the opportunity to participate in individual, self-reported and observational methods with those being researched.
Sampling bias generally means that the researcher doesn't have time to cover the entire group they are focusing on. Or they focus on what they think the important parts of a society are and don't study the less important aspects. Triangulation can combine phone research, face-to-face interviews, and online surveys to ensure that the researcher is getting the most accurate results. In all, the triangulation method for fieldwork can combine all aspects of research to create the most accurate and detailed results, taking different perspectives and various sources to culminate into the most accurate model or a culture.
Quantitative research is more interested in hard data procured through things like surveys, polls, and censuses. This type of research is interested in things like the percentage of people interviewed that agree with one statement versus another, the number of people in a culture that belong to a certain organization, or how many people in a country speak the native language versus how many are bilingual or only speak a foreign language.
This method of research usually requires a large random sample group. It is totally concerned with the hard evidence quantity through statistics and recorded happenings, participants, and locations.
Qualitative research is typically descriptive, or anecdotal, and does not lend itself to the analysis of quantitative data. Qualitative research is in-depth research that seeks to understand why something happens the way it does.
In anthropology, qualitative research includes participating as well as observing. It often crosses disciplinary boundaries and strays from a single subject, or variable being studied. Due to the specific rapport required to obtain qualitative data, it generally requires a smaller sample size. Made popular during the late 18th century, this was the primary anthropological method used until the s. It is based around the central idea of positivism, a theory saying that theology and metaphysics are earlier imperfect modes of knowledge and that positive knowledge is based on natural phenomena with their properties and relations as verified by the scientific method.
The ideal positivist approach would occur with a physical scientist in a lab, producing concrete results. Anthropologists adapted this method to their own use by testing hypotheses in different cultures under similar conditions. This method was very successful in recording previously unknown data about different peoples, but it was often objective facts about a way of life in which the people of the culture at question were regarded more as lab subjects than actual human beings.
Eventually this method was adapted into the reflexive method, to better demonstrate the relationships that exist within communities and the anthropologists own interactions with the informants.
The positivist approach requires the use of the scientific method. A researcher makes an observation about a social behavior or condition, constructs a hypothesis as to the reason or outcome of the observation, tests the hypothesis and then analyzes the results.
Spradley describes ethnography as different from deductive types of social research in that the five steps of ethnographic research: All five steps happen simultaneously p. In his book, Spradley describes four types of ethnographic analysis that basically build on each other. The other kinds of analysis are taxonomic analysis, componential analysis, and theme analysis.
These meanings are expressed through symbols, which can be words, but can also be nonverbal cues. However, because this book is about analyzing interviews, Spradley focuses on analyzing the spoken words of the participants.
He explains that words are symbols that represent some kind of meaning for an individual, and each symbol has three parts: Thus, the word computer can be a symbol.
It refers to many things, including an individual's own personal computer. Thus, a computer is a kind of computer in the mind, or the idea of a computer, and this shows the relationship between the symbol computer and the referent an actual physical computer.
The category of computers is a domain that includes not only a laptop, but all the Dells, Toshibas, iMacs, and IBMs in the world. These all share the same relationship because they are all kinds of computers. There are three elements to a domain. Second, there are included terms, which are all the types of computers just listed.
When anthropologists complete a domain analysis, they are gaining an understanding of how people place objects within different domains. In other words how does a person, family, or culture categorize the world around them.
This information can be gathered is several ways. Strict inclusion "what is a Macbook, a computer , Domain analysis, and questioning the categorization are methods of domain analysis.
Taxonomic Analysis is a search for the way that cultural domains are organised. Building upon the first type of analysis, this form of research is best defined as the classification of data in form x is a kind of y D'Andrade, Used largely for the organization and grouping of plant and animal species, the taxonomic analysis is not focused on the features of an organism but rather the variable genetic differences that define them.
Taxonomic Analysis usually involves drawing a graphical interpretation of the ways in which the individual participants move, form groups, and pattern the structure of a conversation. For example, scientists can refer to the common chimpanzee using the taxonomy pan troglodyte which is the ITIS report that has qualifications of all known mammals and make specific references to that species without fear of error in their classification and use of data.
The realization that knowledge about other people emerges out of people's relationships with and perceptions of each other. The changing of species over time. A demographically diverse group of people assembled to participate in a guided discussion about a particular thing before it is released.
Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. Children and even adults train their bodies and brains for real life situation through playing. Through the act of playing, children acquire and learn many new skills which contribute to their growth and development, such as cooperation, decision-making, as well as improved ability to both think and act more creatively.
According to a report by Kenneth R. Patterns and connections made between nerve cells and neurons in the brain are stimulated and influenced by the activities children engage in, such as play.
Children should be encouraged to play because it can be extremely constructive to the overall development of their brains, as well as effective in forming new connections in their brains. Playing also prompts children to use their brains in creative and imaginative ways. This not only develops and strengthens connections in their brains but also allows them to experience many different aspects of the world that they may not otherwise be able to experience.
These games allow children to play and think creatively together. Sandra Shiner says this about fantasy games: Games that children have created usually have sets of rules that the players are expected to follow. These types of rule-making collaborations through play not only teach children how to logically come up with ideas and rules, but also teaches them how to interact with each other, communicate, and understand how to socialize and work in a group.
Studies have also shown that, "while in free play children tended to sort themselves into groupings by sex and color". It wasn't until recently that modern anthropologists realized the human play was an important factor and was necessary to be studied because of its massive impact on human behavior.
The act of playing is now viewed by many in the field of anthropology as a universal practice and one that is significant to the understanding of human cultures. Play is demonstrated and encouraged in the United States preschool system. Parents are encouraged to send their children to preschool so that they can learn ways of play and interaction that will be important skills as they grow older and begin to integrate into society.
Preschool and the idea of play in this context is beneficial to young children because it teaches the life skill of sharing, as well as many others like friendship, patience, and acceptance of others. There are thousands of special varieties of hemp. Using these distinctly potent plants, it is feasible to extract cannabis oil that contains a significant degrees of cannabidiol, in addition to necessary vitamins, minerals, fats, terpenes, flavonoids, and also various other non-psychoactive cannabinoids.
This high-CBD hemp oil is imported to the US like other business hemp product as well as can be offered as well as supplied to all 50 states. CBD hemp oil is likewise substantially various than the hemp seeds or organic hemp oil you generally discover in grocery stores. Obtained only from hemp seeds, hemp seed oil is an excellent dietary supplement, consisting of many vitamins and minerals as well as other healthy and balanced components, yet it does not contain cannabidiol.
In the previous years or even more, there have mored than 23, of research studies released in peer reviewed clinical journals outlining the results of cannabis, cannabis oil, and also cannabinoids on the body. Since families, legislators, scientists, as well as more are familiarizing the potential of cannabidiol, hemp CBD oil offers a game altering service in the supplement marketplace, providing all the advantages CBD, without the high of cannabis, that thousands of individuals currently depend on on a daily basis.
CBD hemp oil is an all-natural herb extract of the usual hemp plant. That component is straightforward and also clear. Although hemp plants have actually been planted in states like Kentucky, West Virginia, and also Minnesota for the very first time in half a century, American hemp farming has a long method to go to reach existing residential demand.
The size of this import market is among the major catalysts for hemp legalisation in the United States. As a sustainable resource of a series of products, hemp gives an interesting brand-new action in American agriculture. Consequently, the hemp utilized to produce the high CBD items readily available in America is grown in various countries worldwide.
That we make use of for our CBD oil items is cultivated on ranches in Europe. Not simply any kind of hemp plant will certainly do either— details cultivars of the hemp plant are needed to generate an extract high enough in CBD.
After seasonal harvests of details cultivars, these high-CBD hemp plants are executed a specialized solvent-free removal process to generate a hemp oil that is naturally high in cannabidiol.
This pure hemp extract is then examined for security, high quality, and also cannabinoid web content before being exported to our handling facilities in the United States. Importing any type of cannabis or hemp product right into the United States is a challenging and also significant job, so we leave nothing to opportunity prior to our high-CBD hemp oil makes its trip across the Atlantic Ocean. These products form a variety of strengths, personal uses, as well as application or consumption approaches to meet the diverse needs of our consumers.
In the natural product and also dietary supplement sectors, these rigorous testing practices are not needed by regulations— yet provided the the level to which our customers depend on us, it has actually become our core mission to go the extra mile.
Usings CBD hemp oil are as varied as the customers who order it. With that said in mind, there are a variety of CBD hemp oil items available, varying in rate as well as potency, to satisfy the demands of everyone. This all-natural hemp oil is merely removed from the stalk of the hemp plant, examined for high quality, as well as packaged offer for sale without ingredients.
These pure oils have the highest possible focus of CBD, usually mg or more each serving. Likewise typically referred to as CBD tinctures or sprays, there are a selection of wonderful benefits to CBD liquids.
They generally provide a smaller sized serving of CBD, from mg per offering, which is enough for most individuals. CBD fluids likewise come in wonderful flavors, making CBD delightful for kids, or anyone with a sweet tooth. If you begin your day with your early morning fish oil pill or multivitamin, CBD capsules might be for you. Not all CBD oil items are taken inside. CBD oil topicals like soothing salves as well as balms could be rubbed straight into the skin.
Many CBD topicals are enhanced with natural essential oils and also organic blends, these elegant balms are massaged into the skin, muscles, and also joints for concentrated focus on trouble locations. CBD hemp oil items could be purchased from our on the internet store and shipped straight to all 50 states as well as over 40 nations worldwide.
Cultural Anthropology/Print version
be used for commercial or political purposes. cannabidiol (CBD) oil. Representative Toone stated this bill would update Idaho's time the department appears to present the report, then the department shall supplement Kootenai Coeur d'Alene – RTT (Sandpoint, Moscow or Lewiston) (6). As the list of living things we care about grows, so does our capacity for caring. SPOKANE • EASTERN WASHINGTON • NORTH IDAHO • INLANDER. lagerstätte also called the Latah Formation, a little less than two hours south of Coeur d'Alene. .. In recent years, he's used cannabidiol, or CBD oil. Fans of the BBC series Walking with Dinosaurs were able to do just .. facing our community: identity development, cultural appropriation, authenticity the list goes on. A full 92 percent of nearly respondents said they've used seizures to be treated with marijuana oil high in cannabidiol (CBD).